Revista de Ciencias Agrícolas <p align="justify">The Revista de Ciencias Agrícolas is a recognized means of divulgation and distribution of scientific and technological research nationwide and abroad, biannually publishes original articles written in Spanish, English and Portuguese, on topics related to Agricultural Sciences, which present in detail results of research in agriculture, forestry, agricultural biotechnology and food which are subject to the assessment process by nationals and foreign peers, and to review and approval by the Editorial Committee of the magazine.</p> <p><strong>DOI:</strong>&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> en-US (Tulio César Lagos Burbano) (Leydy Martínez) Wed, 19 Dec 2018 00:00:00 -0500 OJS 60 In vitro arrow cane (Gynerium sagitatum Aubl.) multiplication in double phase medium <p>Arrow cane (Gynerium sagitatum Aubl.) is a Poaceae species used as fiber source to make traditional&nbsp;and valuable handmade craftsmanship by indigenous communities in Northern Colombia. Since no&nbsp;commercial crops are established fiber needs are taken from natural plant populations affecting&nbsp;ecosystem. A micropropagation protocol to clonally multiply large quantities of arrow cane plant&nbsp;material for planting commercial crops has been developed; however, micropropagated plants are&nbsp;costly compared to naturally extracted plant material. To reduce micropropagated plants costs, in the&nbsp;present research a double phase medium formulation along with continuous shoot culture with no&nbsp;periodic transfers to fresh medium was compared to semisolid medium system with subculture every&nbsp;four weeks with respect to&nbsp; multiplication rate and costs of micropropagated plants. The results showed&nbsp;that continuous culture of explants with double phase medium and no periodic transfers resulted in&nbsp;higher multiplication rates and larger shoots compared to shoots cultured using the conventional<br>semisolid medium system and transfer to fresh medium every four weeks. Plants from both, semisolid&nbsp;and double phase culture system, fully adapted and recovered when transferred to ex vitro conditions.&nbsp;The cost analysis showed that double phase cultured shoots are ≥20% less expensive.</p> Claudia Marcela Lopez D., Isidro Elias Suarez P. ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 18 Dec 2018 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation of liming materials using incubation tests in an oxisol from the Colombian highlands <p>Oxisols form one of the broader agricultural frontiers in the world; in South America, there are 243&nbsp;million hectares, with 17 million in Colombia. Acidity resulting from aluminum, debasification and low&nbsp;availability of phosphorus are the most relevant indicators of chemical infertility in these soils. The&nbsp;objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of liming materials on controlling acidity and&nbsp;chemical improvement of bases in an oxisol typical of the native savanna in the Colombian Altillanura.&nbsp;Using a completely randomized experiment design, 13 incubation treatments with three replications&nbsp;were defined. The chemical characterization of the problem soil, to which 1.5t.ha-1CaCO3 equivalent was&nbsp;incorporated using different commercial EQCaCO3 liming materials, was determined. At 40 days postincubation,<br>the chemical variables related to acidity (pH and concentrations of Al3+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and P) were&nbsp;evaluated. The encapsulating materials using simple amendments (calcined dolomites, ground dolomites,&nbsp;calcium and magnesium hydroxides, basic slag and live limes) had a significant effect on the control of&nbsp;acidity and increased the concentrations of Ca2 + and colloidal Mg2 +. A similar response was obtained when&nbsp;the treatments, such as the simple amendments, were mixed with phosphoric rock and organic matter&nbsp;(chicken manure) at a ratio of 75:10:15, respectively. The calcium and magnesium hydroxides and the&nbsp;basic steel slag, used as simple amendments or as part of complex amendments, offered superior effects&nbsp;on controlling acidity, with respect to the rest of the materials.</p> Hugo Castro, Juan Carlos Guerrero ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 19 Dec 2018 00:00:00 -0500 Effect of the application of copolymere on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) crop <p>The main problem of the agricultural production in arid and semiarid regions is mainly the scarcity of&nbsp;irrigation water and the low quality of the soils. Hence, it is important to find alternatives and efficient&nbsp;water resources management practices in these regions within a frame of absolute rationality and&nbsp;sustainability. The objective of this work was to assess the water retention capacity of acrilamyde&nbsp;copolymer and potassium acrylate and how these could improve a lettuce crop (Lactuca sativa L.)&nbsp;implantation and growth under controlled conditions. Two treatments with 25 and 50 kg. ha-1 doses&nbsp;versus a control sample were compared in order to determine if the use of said amendment could&nbsp;improve crop production. The emergence, survival, fresh and dry weight of the aerial part of the&nbsp;crop and the soil humidity levels were evaluated. The answers were positive for the application of&nbsp;the amendment in the lower dose since the emergence of seedlings, its survival, its growth and its&nbsp;consequent yield raised, as well as the moisture content of the soil. In conclusion, the application of&nbsp;25 kg ha-1 of the copolymer in the of the lettuce crop site, improved the growth and increased its yield.</p> Horacio Andrada, Gabriela Di Barbaro ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 19 Dec 2018 00:00:00 -0500 Ecological restoration of anthropic disturbances in the high Andean zone <p>Restoration ecology is globally well-known as an important activity in efforts to preserve and revert the Environmental degradation as well as to moderate the climate change. Despite being a young discipline, the Restoration ecology has rapidly&nbsp;advanced on its Scientific Foundations and&nbsp;theoretical-practical methods. The aim of this paperwork was to evaluate the methodology of the&nbsp;restoration ecology in order to identify the most important native species in the upper Andean forest. Initially it was carried&nbsp;out an&nbsp;evaluation of the different&nbsp;areas of disturbances&nbsp;according to the methodologies,&nbsp;also&nbsp;it was&nbsp;stablished&nbsp;the potential species to be ecologically preserved. This study was&nbsp;achieved in&nbsp;three different type of grounds and variables such as height, coverage and number of the branches of the plant species were studied. For the ground study was&nbsp;fulfilled&nbsp; an&nbsp;analysis of the main components which showed a correlation&nbsp;among&nbsp;the height, the coverage and number of the branches&nbsp;of&nbsp;the&nbsp;plants for agricultural usage;&nbsp;however, this agricultural usage of the plants didn’t show a relationship&nbsp;among&nbsp;the variables, thus we concluded that the ground was under other type of disturbances in the past.&nbsp;Finally&nbsp;we noticed that&nbsp;<em>Oreopanax&nbsp;floribundum</em>&nbsp;is an alternative to initiate restoring processes for these types of disturbance.&nbsp;</p> Pedro Pablo Bacca A., Diana Lucía Burbano M. ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 19 Dec 2018 00:00:00 -0500 Metabolic and reproductive response to energy supplementation in dairy cows in tropical highlands <p>Dairy farms of the department of Nariño present nutritional concerns, especially in the transition period and early lactation, because of the energy imbalance of the diets, which causes deficiencies in the productive and reproductive activity of the cows. According to the above, the main idea was to study the metabolic behavior in the transition period and early lactation of dairy cows supplemented energetically with bypass fat in the tropical highlands of Nariño (Colombia), 21 cows (Holstein x Simmental cross) of second and third lactation period were selected. They were distributed in three treatments with seven animals each; the control treatment (T1) received a base diet (forage + concentrate) without fat supplementation; the second treatment (T2) had a base diet plus 250 g/day of bypass fat and the third (T3) had a base diet plus 250 g/day bypass fat enriched with omega 3. The experimental period ranged between days 15 of prepartum to day 105 of lactation, with an interval of 15 days among sampling. To evaluate the matabolyc performance, we evaluated in serum: non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), betahydroxybutyrate (BHB), cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, total proteins, albumin, BUN, and globulins. In addition, body condition and reproductive behavior were determined. The results indicated that there was no efect of treatments on metabolic performance, body condition, and reproductive activity. The energy indicators showed no changes, indicating an adequate supply energy supply in the diet; however, in the metabolites associated to nitrogen, differences in protein were observed. The values found in the variables, constitute a reference of the behavior and the nutritional conditions of the dairy farms in the region.</p> Diana Milena David M., Rómulo Campos Gaona, José Edmundo Apráez, Mauricio Vélez Terranova, Gema Lucia Zambrano B. ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 19 Dec 2018 00:00:00 -0500 The omics sciences used for crop improvement programs <p>Population growth, climate change and the loss of ecosystem services are some of the challenges facing agriculture in recent decades to ensure long-term food security. Plant breeding programs can contribute to the development of genotypes adapted to new environmental conditions. The development and implementation of high-throughput sequencing technologies have accelerated breeding programs for crops that feed the world's population. This article reviews the main technological developments in “omics” used for genetic crop improvement. Here, we briefly discuss four technologies and their applications in the field of agriculture: phylogenomics, comparative genomics, comparative transcriptomics and marker assisted selection. These approaches allow to understand the evolutionary history of crops and their wild relatives, as well as identify the structure and function of genes of interest in agriculture. In addition, these help to reveal the expression of important genes in the domestication process and characterize individuals of agricultural species using molecular approaches that allow streamlining selection processes. It is necessary to implement genetic improvement programs that include the use of some or all of these technologies with the purpose of accelerating processes that can contribute to current agricultural challenges.</p> Kelly Botero O., Tatiana Arias ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 19 Dec 2018 00:00:00 -0500 Effects of climate change: A look to Agriculture <p>Climate change affects sensitively the agricultural sector, which generates social conflicts, economic losses and threatening food security; as evidenced during rainfalls and drought periods presented during the phenomena of “El niño” and “La niña” in Colombia. The solution to these problems requires long-term planning processes, based on the recovery of ecosystems, the use of new technologies and the consolidation of a new cultural identity oriented towards sustainability; as expressed in the country's climate change plans and policies. This review addresses the scenarios of climate change in Colombia and the “Departamento de Nariño”, and evaluates the possible impacts on the agricultural sector; as well as the different mitigation and adaptation actions implemented at the regional level. Finally, some successful experiences in Latin America are addressed, such as the cultivation of varieties resistant to climatic stress, agroforestry systems, water harvesting and solid rain.</p> ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 19 Dec 2018 00:00:00 -0500