Estado del arte del rendimiento académico en la educación media

Estado del arte del rendimiento académico en la educación media

Oscar Hernán Cerquera Losada

Resumen

Este documento muestra el Estado de arte de los determinantes del rendimiento académico en la educación media, teniendo en cuenta las principales investigaciones realizadas, tanto a nivel nacional como internacional, acerca de los factores que influyen en el logro escolar de los estudiantes. Con este trabajo, se busca establecer las principales variables, tanto en Colombia como en algunos lugares del mundo, que afectan el desempeño académico de los estudiantes. Este documento se organiza en dos sesiones, determinantes a nivel mundial y determinantes a nivel colombiano; cada sesión clasifica las investigaciones de acuerdo a los factores del estudiante, de la escuela y las características organizacionales y políticas. A pesar de existir 
muchas investigaciones sobre el tema, aún no se ha llegado a un consenso general sobre cómo determinar los factores del  rendimiento académico, pues en la realidad son muchas las características del individuo, la escuela o el sistema que se relacionan entre sí de diferente manera y pueden afectar el logro estudiantil.

ABSTRACT
This document shows the state of the art of the determinants of academic achievement in secondary education, taking into account the main research conducted, both nationally and internationally, about the factors that influence school achievement of students. With this paper, we seek to establish the main variables which affect the academic achievement of students in Colombia as well as in some parts of the world. This document is organized in two sessions: world and Colombian determinants; each session classifies research according to the factors of the student, the school and organizational and political characteristics. Although there is much research on the topic so far it has not been possible to reach a consensus on how to determine the factors of academic achievement, because in reality many characteristics of the individual, of the school or of the system relate to each other differently and can affect student achievement.

RESUMO
Este documento mostra o Estado da arte dos determinantes do rendimento escolar no ensino medio, tendo em conta às principais pesquisas realizadas, tanto a nível nacional como internacionalmente, sobres os fatores que influenciam o desempenho escolar dos estudantes. Com este trabalho, se procura estabelecer as principais variáveis, tanto na Colômbia e em alguns lugares do mundo, afetando o desempenho acadêmico dos estudantes. Este documento está organizado em duas sessões, determinantes a nível mundial e determinantes a nível colombiano; cada sessão clasifica as pesquisas de acordó a os fatores do estudante, da escola e das características organizacionais e políticas. Embora haja muitas pesquisas sobre o tema, ainda não se chegou a um consenso geral sobre os fatores determinantes no desempenho acadêmico, porque na realidade são muitas as características do indivíduo, a escola ou o sistema que se relacionam uns com os outros de forma diferente e podem afetar o desempenho acadêmico.

Palabras clave

educación; factor colegio; factor estudiante; pruebas estandarizadas; rendimiento académico; Education; school factor; student factor; standardized tests; academic achievement; educação; fator colégio; fator estudante; testes padronizados desempenho acadê

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