Experiencias del personal de enfermería de salud mental ante estresores ocupacionales en una Institución prestadora de Servicios de Cali, Colombia

Experiences of mental health nursing staff at occupational stressors in a service provider institution in Cali, Colombia

Ana María Ruíz, Jenniffer Andrea Tovar, Verónica Andrade

Resumen

Introducción: El personal de enfermería que atiende pacientes psiquiátricos, se enfrenta a estresores ocupacionales diferenciados. Objetivo: Interpretar las experiencias del personal de enfermería de salud mental ante estresores ocupacionales, desde tres modelos de estrés de corte transaccional y de la Teoría de Papeles de Goffman.  Materiales y métodos: Estudio cualitativo y fenomenológico. Se realizaron entrevistas semi-estructuradas a enfermeras de una Institución Prestadora de Salud, para el análisis se empleó el análisis de contenido y mapa de asociación de ideas.  Resultados: Los principales estresores ocupacionales encontrados fueron: recursos físicos desfavorables y ausencia de otros, características de los pacientes, sobrecarga laboral, conflictos interpersonales, falta de preparación, e impuntualidad en salario. Como consecuencia se encontró cambios en la salud mental del personal y en la prestación de los servicios que brindan. Conclusiones: La manera en que está configurado el sistema de trabajo en la institución presenta estresores ocupacionales que afectan a todas las participantes, quienes los afrontan a través de sus capacidades personales, los recursos disponibles, las redes de apoyo y la experiencia adquirida; todo ello permeado por los modos en que comprenden e interpretan su rol en el marco del trabajo.

Palabras clave

Estrés laboral; enfermería; salud mental

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