Insectıcıdal actıvıtıes of anethum graveolens and ıllıcıum verum essentıal oıls agaınst sıtophılus zeamaıs
Inappropriate use of synthetic insecticides in pest management programmes contribute in ozone depletion, neurotoxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, mutagenesis and resistance. These negative outcomes have diverted attention towards the use of plant products in insect’s population management. In this present study, dill (Anethum graveolens) and star anise (Ilicium verum) essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation method using clevenger apparatus, and evaluated for repellent, toxic and oviposition inhibitory potential against maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionida) by fumigation and contact methods. In toxicity assay by fumigation method, median lethal concentrations (LC50) recorded were 0.316 and 0.243 μL/cm3 air; 0.362 and 0.284 μL/cm3; and 0.497 and 0.418 μL/cm3 of A. graveolens and I. verum oils and pure limonene after 24 and 48 h exposure to S. zeamais adults, respectively. In contact toxicity assay, LC50 were 0.219 and 0.159 μL/cm2 area; 0.269 and 0.226 μL/cm2; and 0.567 and 0.386 μL/cm2 of A. graveolens and I. verum oils and pure limonene after 24 and 48 h exposure to S. zeamais adults, respectively. Both oils and limonene reduced progeny production and AChE activity in S. zeamais adults when fumigated with sub-lethal concentration of essential oils and limonene. The outcomes of this study will help in preparation of essential oil based formulations for stored grain insect pest management.
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