Revista de Ciencias Agrícolas <p align="justify">The Revista de Ciencias Agrícolas is a recognized means of divulgation and distribution of scientific and technological research nationwide and abroad, biannually publishes original articles written in english, on topics related to Agricultural Sciences, which present in detail results of research in agriculture, forestry, agricultural biotechnology and food which are subject to the assessment process by nationals and foreign peers, and to review and approval by the Editorial Committee of the magazine.</p> <p><strong>DOI:</strong>&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Universidad de Nariño en-US Revista de Ciencias Agrícolas 0120-0135 Effect of bypass fat on milk lipid quality and reproductive efficiency of dairy cows <p>Nariño (Colombia) has high dairy potential; however, their herds present difficulties in the nutritional component (energy imbalance) of the cows, affecting their productivity. This research evaluated the effect of a bypass fat supplement on lipid concentration in milk and the reproductive efficiency of dairy cows. The study was based on 21 Holstein x Simmental cows between first and third calving and the following was supplied: forage + concentrate (T1); forage + concentrate + 250 g/day of bypass fat (T2) and forage + concentrate + 250 g/day of bypass fat enriched with omega-three (T3). The experiment was conducted from day 15 pre-calving until day 105 of lactation. During this period, milk quantity, quality, composition, and reproductive behavior were recorded. For data analysis, a repeated measure mixed design with time-series data was used, where the fixed effects were the treatments, periods, and their interaction, the animals represented the random effect, and the covariable was the estimated milk yield during lactation. The results showed normal mobilization of adipose tissue; the compositional quality of the milk did not vary across treatments, although T2 presented a higher estimated production per lactation, and T3 presented a higher percentage of fatty acid C18:2. In the reproductive indicators, they were not influenced between the treatments; concluding that the base diet offered in the herd presents a nutritional balance appropriate to the requirements of the cows in production.</p> Lesvy Ramos Jose Edmundo Apraez Diana Milena David Jorge Fernando Navia ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-16 2022-09-16 39 2 Coffee Storage in Hermetic Bags and its Influence on Prices and Sensory Scores <p>Coffee quality is generally evaluated through cupping, a technique based on sensory perceptions. Trained cuppers assign scores to ten quality attributes on a scale of 1 to 10. Exposure of coffee to moisture and/or oxygen during storage and/or transportation can affect the sensory evaluation and reduce the price received by farmers. This paper has two objectives. First, it estimates the effect of sensory scores and water activity on coffee <em>price</em> and its <em>price differential </em>from the market price. Second, it explores coffee sensory scores sensitivity to storage duration and water activity under two methods of application of the Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) bags - the standard three layers PICS bag (PICS-3L) and the two layers PICS bag (PICS-2L). Data were collected for ten months from an experiment conducted in Manizales, Colombia. Results suggest, on average, that an additional point in the score of flavor or body increases the price of coffee by at least 66 COP/kg (0.015 USD/kg). If coffee has an additional point in aftertaste or uniformity from what is expected from other coffees of the same origin, then its price differential is reduced by at least 8 COP/kg (0.002 USD/kg). Using a PICS-3L bag instead of a PICS-2L bag does not affect the coffee price or sensory scores, but it reduces the price differential by approximately 18 COP/kg (0.004 USD/kg). On the other hand, water activity reduces coffee price but not its price differential. Storage time affects coffee sensory scores in some attributes, which may impact the coffee bean price.</p> Carlos Alejandro Zurita Kenneth Foster Dieudonne Baributsa Carlos Alberto Parra Natalie Donovan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-16 2022-09-16 39 2 Molecular characterization of Fusarium spp. associated vascular wilt in passion fruit (Passiflora ligularis JUSS) <p>In Colombia, vascular rotting of passion fruit (<em>P. ligularis</em>) caused by the fungus <em>Fusarium</em> is considered the most important pathological problem in the cultivation of this fruit. Plants affected by the pathogen wilt and die, causing considerable yield losses and increased production costs. The objective of this work was to determine the genetic variability of the <em>Fusarium</em> species associated with this disease. For this, 50 samples were collected from producing farms in three municipalities of the department of Nariño. A total of 35 isolates were characterized morphologically and molecularly. The morphological identification was carried out using taxonomic keys. Molecular characterization was performed by PCR with primers ITS1 – ITS4 and TEF1α. The PCR products were sent to Macrogen (Korea) for sequencing. Sequencing results indicated that <em>Fusarium oxysporum</em> f.sp. <em>passiflorae</em> is associated as a causal agent of the disease. In addition, the presence of <em>Ilyonectria robusta</em> was determined, which, has not been reported before in passion fruit plants. The phylogenetic analysis allowed determine that there was little variability among the isolates evaluated; no grouping was observed associated to the geographical origin of the samples. The morphological characters corroborated the species information obtained from the molecular analysis.</p> Claudia Salazar-Gonzalez Omar Yela-Caicedo Bladimir Gomez-Espinoza ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-01 2022-06-01 39 2 Susceptibility of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787) (Acari: Ixodidae) to calcium polysulfide application <p>Hard ticks are a problem of great importance in the national livestock industry due to their capacity to be vectors of diseases that affect the productivity of animals and humans, becoming an arthropod of veterinary-medical importance. The methods used for their control have not been efficient; therefore, different integrated control alternatives have become crucial to mitigate their population growth. Products such as calcium polysulfide have shown to be an effective alternative in controlling mite populations. The present study was carried out at the Center for Research and Breeding of Natural Enemies of the University of Caldas using nymphs of <em>Amblyomma cajennense</em>, arranged in Petri dishes and sprayed with an average volume of calcium polysulfide of 1.3ml. From there, the lethal concentration of calcium polysulfide at 31.5°B, on the individuals of this species was determined. The evaluations were carried out at 24, 48 and 96h after application, finding, by Probit analysis, Cl<sub>50</sub> of 1.05% and Cl<sub>95 </sub>of 1.35% concentration of the product, which indicates that this compound has the potential to be used in the integrated management plan of <em>A. cajennense</em>.</p> Veronica Soto-Cardona Santiago García-Cardona Alberto Soto-Giraldo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-23 2022-09-23 39 2 Toxicological studies in poultry consuming fumonisin from corn contaminated with Brazilian Amazonian flora <p>The fungus <em>Fusarium verticillioides</em> produces fumonisins (FB1 and FB2), characterized by being the most frequently produced molecular forms and with greater toxicity. Fumonisin contamination is responsible for substantial losses during the meat production chain, so the safe levels of these compounds must be determined. The study was directed to establish safe levels of FB1 in poultry production; for this purpose, were used COBB 500<sup>®</sup> birds on experimental lots of infected corn during the 2015/2016 season in Brazil. The experimental group included 160 animals, divided into two groups: The T1 without fumonisin in the diet (control); and the T2 group in which corn was contaminated with 2.78 μg/g of fumonisin FB1. Histopathological effects of liver, heart, and small intestine, and zootechnical parameters were measured in birds treated. We found that there were no significant differences between the birds treated and untreated after 21 days of exposure to each treatment; F-values &gt; <em>P</em>-values (<em>P</em>&lt;0,05) for feed intake and weekly weight gain. Taken together, our data showed that the concentration evaluated is safe in poultry and will contribute to the design of future clinical studies.</p> Oelton Júnior Alex Sander Cangussu Ana Patrícia da Silva Kenia Rodrigues Mellanie Félix Túllio Teixeira Deusdará Tatiani Ferreira Hélio Brito Kelvinson Viana Eliane Macedo Sobrinho Raimundo Wagner Aguiar Gil Rodrigues dos Santos ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-16 2022-09-16 39 2 Evaluation of fourty genotypes of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) And their reaction to attack by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. physali <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The cape gooseberry is an exotic fruit that in recent years has acquired great importance in both the local and international markets; its nutritional and therapeutic properties make its consumption, both fresh and in preserved products or snacks, become consolidated, especially in European markets. In the producing areas of the country, cape gooseberry crops are affected by numerous diseases, with vascular wilt caused by </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Fusarium oxysporum</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> f. sp. </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">physali </span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">being the most important of all resulting in total crop losses. The management of this pathogen is difficult and so far, it is based on preventive measures; however, there are alternatives such as genetic resistance, which is one of the most effective and profitable measures for its management. Taking that into account, the objective of this study was to evaluate the reaction of 40 genotypes of cape gooseberry (</span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Physalis peruviana</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">) against </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Fusarium oxysporum </span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">under greenhouse conditions, by means of pathogenicity tests. The experiment consisted of 40 treatments corresponding to different genotypes and four replicates per experimental plot, the statistical design was completely randomized. The variables evaluated were height (cm), severity, AUDPC area under the disease progress curve (units), incidence (%) and degree of vascular discoloration. The results obtained show that genotypes 09U138 and 12U399 have greater height (50.19 and 47.36 cm), lower AUDPC (0 units), lower incidence (0%) and lower degree of vascular discoloration (0), being statistically different from the rest of the treatments and even from the commercial control, which indicates that they can be used by farmers to avoid losses caused by </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Fusarium oxysporum </span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">f. sp. </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">physali</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">.&nbsp;</span></p> johana elizabeth pabón ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-16 2022-09-16 39 2 Socioeconomic analysis of traditional cocoa (Theobroma cacao L) agroforestry systems <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The characterization of production systems is an important tool to determine their limitations and potentials. In the study region, this type of diagnosis has not been carried out, which does not allow the improvement and promotion of cocoa crops. The objective of this research was to socioeconomically characterize the traditional cocoa farms in the municipality of Los Andes - Sotomayor, in the department of Nariño. The methodology consisted of reviewing primary information and surveying cocoa farmers with a semi-structured surveys using a stratified random sample of 60 cocoa farmers. Eighteen qualitative and 20 quantitative variables were analyzed with multiple correspondence (MCA) and principal components analysis (PCA). In the PCA, five components explained 58.7% of the variability; the variables with the greatest contribution were the area of the farm, income from cocoa yield, income from agricultural production other than cocoa, and family labor. In the multiple correspondence analysis (MCA), 11 components explained the 58.43% of the variability. The most important components were farmer's schooling, type of transport, loans, marketing, technical assistance, gender, land tenure, production systems, roads, and domestic animals. Finally, topographic and climatic conditions, inadequate roads for the transportation and marketing of cocoa, and the low adoption of technologies limit the competitiveness of the products generated by this production system; therefore, it is necessary to create favorable conditions to enhance the potential of this crop in the area.</span></p> William Ballesteros Possú Jesús-Geovanny Solarte-Guerrero ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-16 2022-09-16 39 2 Determinants of nitrogen use efficiency in coffee crops. A review <p>World production of coffee (<em>Coffea</em> spp.) has increased in recent decades due to its growing demand. Nitrogen (N) is one of the most required nutrients by coffee crops and in many cases, the most yield-limiting; nevertheless, a high percentage of supplied N is lost, generating pollution, greenhouse gases, and economic losses. Given this scenario, it is a priority to adopt practices that increase nitrogen use efficiency related to the capacity of plants to absorb and use N to produce biomass. This article provides context about NUE and determining factors in coffee: plant, soil, climate, and management. On the plant side, despite advances in genetics and the results of genotype evaluation, it may be a decade or more before improved coffee varieties with high EUN become available or used in world coffee farming. Both the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the soil and the elements of the climate, mainly temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation, have an influence on coffee growth and many of the processes that intervene in the N cycle and NUE; however, some components of these two factors are not fully controllable. Management of the factors that determine NUE should focus on reducing N losses in the system, increasing its uptake and utilization by plants, and maintaining or increasing productivity.</p> Siavosh Sadeghian-Khalajabadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-01 2022-06-01 39 2