Revista de Ciencias Agrícolas <p align="justify">The Revista de Ciencias Agrícolas is a recognized means of divulgation and distribution of scientific and technological research nationwide and abroad, biannually publishes original articles written in english, on topics related to Agricultural Sciences, which present in detail results of research in agriculture, forestry, agricultural biotechnology and food which are subject to the assessment process by nationals and foreign peers, and to review and approval by the Editorial Committee of the magazine.</p> <p><strong>DOI:</strong>&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Universidad de Nariño en-US Revista de Ciencias Agrícolas 0120-0135 Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Phenolics and Antioxidants from Propolis for Stabilization of Sunflower Oil <p>Propolis is one of the byproducts of honey bees;&nbsp;it contains many phenolic compounds which are some of the most important natural antioxidants. The present study examined the antioxidant activity of propolis and its role in the stability of sunflower oil as a natural antioxidant in the form of Box–Behnken design. The extraction process was performed using an ultrasonic bath&nbsp;method with two factors in three levels which included 18 assays by the response surface methods. The investigated variables included the concentration of the extract (min: 30 and max: 1000 ppm), the extraction time (min: 10 and max: 30 minutes), and temperature (min: 37.5 and max: 50<sup>°</sup>C). After analysis of the data in optimal conditions, the concentration of propolis ethanol extract, extraction temperature, and extraction time was determined as 997.5 ppm, 34.6<sup>°</sup>C, and 30 min, respectively. In this condition, the total phenolic compounds and the free-radical&nbsp;scavenging properties were reported as 253.1mgGAE/100gDW and 85.9%, respectively. The result of the evaluation of the oxidative stability of the optimized sample oil showed reduced peroxide and thiobarbituric acid index compared to the control sample and synthetic antioxidants (BHT); also, the oil stability improved significantly over time.</p> Zeinab Golmahi Amir Hossein Elhamirad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-07 2021-05-07 38 1 Morphological and pathogenic characterization of Fusarium oxysporum in lulo (Solanum spp.) <p><em>Fusarium oxysporum</em> is one of the most limiting fungal pathogens of lulo crop. To determine its pathogenicity, this work morphologically and pathogenically characterized <em>F. oxysporum</em> isolates from different lulo-growing municipalities of the Department of Nariño. Twenty isolates were evaluated through a completely randomized design with two factors and three replicates per treatment, including a control. The first factor corresponded to 20 isolates of <em>F. oxysporum</em> and the second to 10 lulo genotypes. The morphological characterization involved determining growth rate (GR), color (CO), mycelial type (MT), medium coloration (Mc), shape (Sh), size (S), number (N) of macroconidial (Ma) and microconidial (Mi) septa, presence of chlamydospores (PC), and chlamydospore shape (CS). Moreover, the pathogenic characterization was based on the incubation period (IP), absolute growth rate (AGR), disease severity (DS), disease incidence (I), and vascular discoloration (VD). The morphological characterization demonstrated that all isolates corresponded to <em>F. oxysporum</em>. For IP, genotype G1 showed the lowest average at 18 days. For AGR, genotype G2 had the lowest height increase at 0.05<sup>-1</sup>. For DS, genotype G1 reached the highest severity level (level 9) and a disease incidence of 100%. This study provides the first report of the special form of <em>F. oxysporum</em> f. sp. <em>quitoense</em> in Nariño. <em>Solanum hirtum</em>, <em>Solanum sessiliflorum</em>, and <em>Solanum estramonifolium</em> were resistant to the isolates evaluated, demonstrating that wild species should be considered as sources of resistance for breeding programs aiming to obtain resistant commercial genotypes.</p> Yohana Patricia Anama Ricardo Díaz David Esteban Duarte Alvarado Tulio Cesar Lagos-Burbano ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-07 2021-05-07 38 1 Insectıcıdal actıvıtıes of Anethum graveolens and Illıcıum verum essentıal oıls agaınst Sıtophılus zeamaıs <p>Inappropriate use of synthetic insecticides in pest management programs contribute in ozone depletion, neurotoxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, mutagenesis and resistance. These negative outcomes have diverted attention towards the use of plant products in insect’s population management. In this study, dill (<em>Anethum graveolens</em>) and star anise (<em>Ilicium verum</em>) essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation method using clevenger apparatus, and evaluated for repellent, toxic and oviposition inhibitory potential against maize weevil <em>Sitophilus zeamais</em> (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by fumigation and contact methods. In toxicity assay by fumigation method, median lethal concentrations (LC<sub>50</sub>) recorded were 0.316 and 0.243 μlcm<sup>-3 </sup>air; 0.362 and 0.284 μlcm<sup>-3</sup>; and 0.497 and 0.418 μlcm<sup>-3</sup> of <em>A. graveolens</em> and <em>I. verum</em> oils and pure limonene after 24 and 48h exposure to <em>S. zeamais</em> adults, respectively. In contact toxicity assay, LC<sub>50</sub> were 0.219 and 0.159 μlcm<sup>-2</sup> area; 0.269 and 0.226 μlcm<sup>-2</sup>; and 0.567 and 0.386 μlcm<sup>-2</sup> of <em>A. graveolens</em> and <em>I. verum</em> oils and pure limonene after 24 and 48 h exposure to <em>S. zeamais</em> adults, respectively. Both <em>A. graveolens</em> and <em>I. verum</em> oils and limonene reduced progeny production and acetylcholinesterase activity in <em>S. zeamais</em> adults when fumigated with sub-lethal concentrations. The outcomes of this study will help in preparation of essential oil based formulations for stored grain insect pest management.</p> Mukesh K Chaubey ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-07 2021-05-07 38 1 Botanical formulations for the ecological management of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and Aphis gossypii (Clover) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and their side effects on parasitoids <p>The peach aphid <em>Myzus persicae</em> (Sulzer) and cotton aphid <em>Aphis gossypii</em> (Clover) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are considered to be key pests affecting greenhouse pepper crops in Argentina as a result of their frequent occurrence and the seriousness of the damage caused by their feeding behavior and the transmission of virus. The goal of this research was to determine the efficiency of botanical products to control aphids and their side effects on parasitoids in this crop. Thus, three biorational pest control formulations derived from essential oils (EO) and plant extracts (Es) were tested, namely (i) neem EO, cinnamon EO, clove EO, oregano EO and American marigold EO (formulation 1); (ii) garlic EO and cinnamon EO (formulation 2); (iii) garlic E and rue E (formulation 3); and a soy lecithin adjuvant (lecithin), and finally, a control (water spray method). For this research, a completely randomized design was replicated 3 times. These treatments were applied directly to the foliage by means of a backpack sprayer on a weekly basis until the end of this trial. Subsequently, the total number of healthy aphids and parasitized aphids (mummies) on every leaf was recorded in the field and the laboratory through repeated measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and LSD Fisher method. The results showed that formulation 1 and formulation 3 recorded a lower number of aphids and mummies compared to the other treatments. This evidence would demonstrate that these formulations repel aphids and parasitoids without the lethal effects caused by the use of broad spectrum insecticides.</p> Jorge Eduardo Castresana Laura Elena Puhl ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-08 2021-05-08 38 1 Coffee (Coffea arabica L,var. Castillo) seedling growth in Nariño, Colombia <p>Coffee is one of the most socioeconomically important crops worldwide. Currently, environmental variations due to climate change are affecting coffee development and growth. Therefore, it is important to evaluate areas that offer a different environment during seedling stage since it is fundamental for successful cultivation. Four municipalities located at different altitudes in the Department of Nariño were selected: La Florida (1879 m a.s.l.), Sandoná (1924 m a.s.l.), Consacá (2001 m a.s.l.), and La Unión (1417 m a.s.l.). The experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design. Growth variables were measured for five months, including total height-TH, number of leaves-NL, total leaf area-LA, fresh weight-FW, and dry weight-W. The following indices were calculated from the variables recorded: relative growth rate-RGR, leaf area index-LAI, net assimilation rate-NAR, crop growth rate-CGR, leaf area duration-LAD, and leaf area ratio-LAR. The data related to TH, NL, W, and LA recorded during the last evaluation (120 days after being transplanted) showed differences between locations; the maximum values in TH, W and LA were recorded in La Union, while higher averages in NL were obtained in Sandoná. The index values for CGR, LAI, LAR, RGR, and LAD were higher in La Unión, while NAR was higher in La Florida. The results lead to conclude that there are differences in coffee seedling growth depending on the climatic conditions. Accordingly, the highest growth was observed in areas at lower altitudes; therefore, these are recommended for seedling establishment given the higher growth rate, especially that of leaves.</p> Danita Andrade Díaz José Álvaro Castillo Marín ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-08 2021-05-08 38 1 Assessing the soil color by traditional method and a smartphone: a comparison <p>Based on the hypothesis that there is a high agreement between pedologists and a smartphone application in the assessment of soil color; the objective was to compare the perceptions of pedologists and an application in obtaining the color of an <em>Argissolo</em> [Lixisol] (A, E and B horizons). &nbsp;Ten aggregates of each horizon were collected. In a single day, under the same lighting conditions, three pedologists described the color components (hue, value, and chroma) of each aggregate (dry and moist soil) using the Munsell soil color chart. Each one of the ten aggregates, from each horizon, was photographed (dry and moist soil sequence) using the camera of a Motorola Moto G4 Plus smartphone. The distance of the camera to the aggregates was 25 ± 5 cm. Also, each aggregate was placed on a white sheet of A4 size paper (background). The application used was Soil Analysis Pro. The percentage of agreement between pedologists and application was obtained concerning hue, value, and chroma. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, in a completely randomized design, with ten replicates. Action Stat® software was used for statistical analysis. It was concluded that the agreement between pedologists and the smartphone application was medium for hue and chroma and low for value. For the dry soil condition, there is a high agreement between pedologists and the smartphone application, especially in the perception of hue and chroma. Thus, the smartphone application has the potential to be used in routine descriptions of soil color.</p> Gabriela de Castro Raulino Lucas de Sousa Oliveira Ícaro Vasconcelos do Nascimento Cillas Pollicarto da Silva Márcio Godofrêdo Rocha Lobato Thiago Leite Alencar Raul Shiso Toma Francisca Gleiciane da Silva Jaedson Cláudio Anunciato Mota ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-08 2021-05-08 38 1 Nutritional, antinutritional and phenological characterization of promising forage species for animal feeding in a cold tropical zone <p>The search for forages with high biomass production and high nutritional content has made it possible to find food alternatives that, due to their nutritional benefits and resistance to adverse environmental factors, are the best option for herbivores. With the knowledge of farmers, producers and the experience of researchers, 12 species most frequently used in animal feeding were selected, identified and classified in the University's PSO herbarium of the University of Nariño. These were phenologically, nutritionally and antinutritionally characterized. Of these species, four belonged to the Asteraceae family; the Fabaceae, Adoxaceae and Malvaceae families were represented by two species; the Salicaceae and Cucurbitaceae families were represented by one and were propagated in nursery. In the nutritional composition, the Retamo (<em>Genista monspessulana</em>) stood out for its high dry matter content with 34.2%. Unlike the Chauchilla (<em>Cyclanthera brachystachya</em>), with 8.79%, the Sauco (<em>Sambucus peruviana</em>) had a higher content of protein 25.93%, followed by Abutilon <em>(Abutilon pictum) </em>with 23.42%. Chauchilla (<em>Cyclanthera brachystachya</em>) had the highest crude fiber content, with 21.59%, NDF of 38.06%, and FDA 27.23%. Tannins were the most common secondary metabolites in the species evaluated with moderate or low levels; sterols were present at low levels, and saponins and alkaloids yielded negative values.</p> Lesvy Ramos José Edmundo Apráez Kris Stephany Cortes José Julián Apráez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-08 2021-05-08 38 1 Life cycle and morphological identification of Globodera spp. related to potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) phenology in Nariño, Colombia <p>Nematodes of Globodera genus are considered one of the most important and limiting pests for potato crops, since these pathogens are difficult to control and cause losses between 20 and 50% of production. The study was carried out in areas of Túquerres and Contadero, belonging to the department of Nariño, Colombia, where cysts were collected by taking soil samples and obtaining immature females after observing the potato plants roots. Photographic records of symptoms corresponding to the nematode presence during the phenological development of the crop were also taken. This study was carried out in order to determine the present specie in the mentioned areas by studying morphological characters such as: nodules shape of the stylet, stretch marks between the vulva and anus and the female color change towards the cyst formation and relate the biological cycle of the pathogen with the host. Cysts viability tests were carried out, obtaining active larvae in J2 state. The evaluated results corresponded to <em>Globodera pallida</em> species and no evidence <em>Globodera rostochiensis</em> was found in samples. Refering to symptoms observed in field, there was chlorosis, yellowish spots on the foliage and plants with little growth. The appearance of immature females coincides with the phenological stage of flowering, which occurs 90 days after the plant emergence.</p> lina maria realpe Carlos Arturo Betancourth Juan-David Moran-Toro Luz-Mery Portillo-Rosero Katherine Urrego-Otero ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-08 2021-05-08 38 1 Effect of salicylic acid and progesterone on physiological characteristics of Kentucky bluegrass under salinity stress <p>Salinity is one of the most important limiting factors in plant growth. It is also a predominant constraint that impairs grass growth and quality. Plant hormones play important roles in the capability of plants to adapt to environmental stresses. Hence, the impact of two plant growth regulators (PGRs) i.e. salicylic acid (SA) and progesterone (P4) was studied on biological characteristics of <em>Poa pratensis</em> in saline conditions in a greenhouse experimnt. The experimental treatments were composed of salinity at four levels (0, 2, 4, and 6 dS&nbsp;m<sup>-1</sup>) and six levels of PGRs (control, 1 mg&nbsp;L<sup>-1</sup> P4,10 mg&nbsp;L<sup>-1</sup> P4, 1 mM SA, 3 mM SA, and 1 mg&nbsp;L<sup>-1</sup> P4 + 1 mM SA). The results showed that leaf firing percentage was increased with the excess in salinity, but the use of SA and P4 eased the effects of salinity stress and reduced leaf firing under salinity. 6 dS&nbsp;m<sup>-1</sup> and 3 mM SA salinity caused to the maximum electrolyte leakage. The highest relative water content was observed in 4 dS&nbsp;m<sup>-1</sup> salinity and 1 mM SA treatment. The highest glycine betaine was related to 6 dS&nbsp;m<sup>-1</sup> NaCl and no hormone application. Salinity increased total protein and catalase, and the simultaneous use of P4 and SA exhibited the highest total protein and catalase content, whilst the control plants showed the lowest ones. The application of salinity stress reduced chlorophyll content, but SA and P4 increased it. The application of the two growth regulators improved carotenoid content under salinity stress. Overall, the results showed that the application of SA and P4 improved salinity tolerance and increased pigments and antioxidant enzyme activities.</p> Elham Sabzmeydani Shahram Sedaghathoor Davood Hashemabadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-05 2021-06-05 38 1 Biological activity of soils cultivated with yacón (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poep. & Endl) H. Robinson, inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense and native mycorrhizal fungi <p>The soil is influenced by the roots of plants because the exudate radicals affect its physical, chemical, and biological processes. The aim of this research was to evaluate the microbial activity of soils cultivated with yacón (<em>Smallanthus sonchifolius</em> Poep. &amp; Endl) H. Robinson and inoculated with microorganisms which promote plant growth. The experimental design used was randomized blocks with three repetitions per treatment. Each repetition corresponded to a 3m x 3m plot with 25 plants, in 5 cultivation lines with a distance of 70 cm apart. Four treatments were applied at the time of plantation. These consisted of yacón propagules inoculated with <em>Azospirillum brasilense</em> (T1) and native mycorrhizal fungi (T2) inoculated with the microbial consortium (T3). In the control treatments, the propagules were not inoculated with these microorganisms (T0). Soil samples were collected in lots cultivated with yacón located in the Province of Catamarca, in the northwest of Argentina. The samples were collected at the time of implantation and harvest during three agricultural cycles. The total Biological Activity (TBA) of the collected samples was determined by Fluorescein Diacetate Hydrolysis. The TBA of the soil was affected by the different crop treatments, which rose in the analyzed soils and was statistically different from the control treatments. Significant differences were also observed between the TBA of the soils at the beginning of the crops in comparison with the recorded values of the crop at the time of harvest. The inoculation of yacón propagules with <em>A. brasilense</em> and native mycorrhizal fungi affects the TBA of the cultivated soils marking a significant increase.</p> María Gabriela Di Barbaro Horacio Enrique Andrada Eleodoro Eduardo Del Valle Celia Inés Brandán ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-02 2021-06-02 38 1 Hydropedological behavior of a chromic vertisol under different plant covers <p>Vertisols present edaphic limiting factors primarily of a physical nature. The study of their hydropedology, supported by multivariate techniques, is of vital importance. The work was developed with the objective of determining, through multivariate analysis, the hydropedological behavior of a Chromic Vertisol under different plant covers. In areas under natural grass, sugarcane, and secondary forest, belonging to the Holguín Sugarcane Provincial Research Station, three random points were chosen in each. Soil penetration resistance, soil bulk density, gravimetric moisture, and volumetric moisture at depths of 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30cm were determined. A Principal Component Analysis and Canonical Correlations were performed using Statistica 7 and Statgraphics Plus XV.II. The first two components made the greatest contribution to the variance, with 83.09%. The greatest contributions (1<sup>st </sup>component) were given by moisture at all depths and by soil compaction at a depth of 20-30 cm. The 2<sup>nd </sup>component was influenced by soil compaction in the 0-10 and 10-20cm layers. There was a contrast between the variables that characterize the solid phase with which they describe the liquid phase of the soil. There was a correlation between soil moisture and compaction. The first two pairs of canonical variables showed a strong linear correlation and regularly dispersed along the central values of the model, with a remarkable grouping by depths.</p> Juan Alejandro Villazón-Gómez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-02 2021-06-02 38 1 Physiological quality of pink pepper seeds (Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi.) as a function of storage <p>Seeds of native forest species for food and seedling production have a growing demand that impacts the need for studies involving seed storage in order to maintain good levels of germination quality. Thus, scientific analyzes that explore the physiological potential of the seeds of these species are necessary, especially for the pink pepper (<em>Schinus terebinthifolia</em> Raddi.), a species used as an alternative source of income for traditional communities and which has been arousing interest due to the consumption of its fruits as a condiment in the national and international market. This work aimed to assess the physiological quality of pink pepper seeds according to the storage period and seed size. The seeds came from a rural settlement, a pioneer in the extraction of pink pepper, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The seeds were evaluated for moisture content, germination, first count, length and dry weight of the germinated seedlings, during the period of time that they remained stored and the size of the seeds. The results allowed to conclude that: i) the germinative percentage of the stored pink pepper seeds decreased over the months; ii) the moisture content of the seeds decreased over the months evaluated iii) the different sizes of seeds did not show differences in germination and storage time and iv) values of length and dry weight of the seedlings did not differ according to the period of storage.</p> Thaísa de Oliveira Silveira Madelon Rodrigues Sá Braz Gilmara Pires de Moura Palermo Tiago Böer Breier ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-05 2021-06-05 38 1 Watercore in Apple Landraces (Malus domestica Borkh.) as a quality indicator <p>Watercore is the presence of a vitrified texture intruded in the pulp of the fruit. It is found in fruits from different genus and families; and it has been studied in apples. Watercore was described, in apples, as a texture with differential sensorial characteristics in relationship with the ordinary pulp, and its presence is currently considered a defect in apple production, causing economic losses. In this study, it is described as a dichotomous descriptor. We analysed 641 apples from a region belonging to Central Spain (Guadarrama mountain range and the close Tagus Basin River); it was found that around 30% of those apples shown this characteristic, being practically all of them from landraces. Studies related to traditional cultivars do not analyze such characteristic, considered up today as a defect. Nevertheless, we discuss that watercore can have some potential as it gives to apple a distinct appearance and aroma, all of them of value in differential quality and international seal protection. As a result, we conclude our preliminary analysis that it is highly recommended to take into consideration watercore as a descriptor in apple characterizations.</p> Alberto Arnal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-08 2021-05-08 38 1