Revista de Ciencias Agrícolas <p align="justify">The Revista de Ciencias Agrícolas is a recognized means of divulgation and distribution of scientific and technological research nationwide and abroad, quarterly publishes original articles written in english, on topics related to Agricultural Sciences, which present in detail results of research in agriculture, forestry, agricultural biotechnology and food which are subject to the assessment process by nationals and foreign peers, and to review and approval by the Editorial Committee of the magazine.</p> <p><strong>DOI:</strong> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> </a><a><img class="citavipicker" style="border: 0px none!important; width: 16px!important; height: 16px!important; margin-left: 1px !important; margin-right: 1px !important;" title="Añadir un título al proyecto de Citavi utilizando este DOI" src=";base64,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" /></a></p> <p> </p> Universidad de Nariño en-US Revista de Ciencias Agrícolas 0120-0135 Edaphic macrofauna in the establishment of an agroforestry system in the High Andean region of Southern Colombia <p>Biological degradation of the soil due to inadequate agricultural practices that eliminate vegetative cover and, therefore, organic matter, reduces the biological communities that perform important ecological functions in the soil. The objective of the study was to evaluate some biological properties of the soil in an agroforestry system with <em>Morella pubescens</em> intercropped with <em>Smallanthus sonchifolius</em> and in a degraded pasture of <em>Cenchrus clandestinum</em>. The trial was conducted at the Botana Experimental Farm, Nariño, at 2,820 meters above sea level. Density, richness and Simpson and Shannon-Wiener diversity indices were determined. A Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications was used. The treatments corresponded to sowing distances of <em>S. sonchifolius.</em> T1: sown at 1x1m, T2: 0.8x0.8m, T3: 0.5x0.5m and the control T4 corresponded to degraded pasture of <em>C. clandestinum</em>. The tree component <em>M. pubescens</em> was established at 4x4m between seedlings and 9m between rows. Soil macrofauna sampling was carried out following the monolithic TSBF method, collecting at depths of (0-10, 10-20 and 20-30cm). A total density of 6,496i/m2 individuals was found. The highest value was obtained in T3 (3,168i/m2) represented by the taxonomic groups Diptera and Haplotaxida. Higher values of richness were observed in T1. The Shannon index was higher in T2 (0.66) while T1 (0.80) presented higher dominance in morphospecies. Density and richness were higher in the agroforestry arrangement than in the degraded <em>Cenchrus clandestinum</em> pasture. Treatments, depth and their interaction did not significantly affect morphospecies diversity.</p> Martin Alonso Muñoz-Rodriguez Ana Carolina Santacruz-Ortiz Copyright (c) 2024 Revista de Ciencias Agrícolas 2024-01-18 2024-01-18 41 1 e1223 e1223 10.22267/rcia.20244101.223 Use of silicate amendments on Improvement of the quality and nutrition of the potato crop, variety 'Diacol Capiro' <p>Potato (<em>Solanum tuberosum</em> L.) is one of the most important agricultural products in cold-climate areas of the world. However, the soils intended for potato production in tropical zones such as Colombia have low availability of essential elements, such as phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, and beneficial elements such as silicon. The general objective was to evaluate the application of increasing doses of three silicate amendments on the dynamics of accumulation of phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, and silicon in leaf tissue and their influence on the quality and production of 'Diacol Capiro' potato tubers under the conditions of Soracá municipality, Boyacá-Colombia. Two production cycles were evaluated, with a completely randomized design and 10 treatments in each cycle. It was observed that the application of double calcium and magnesium silicate at a dose of 900 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> as a crop management practice resulted in an increase in the accumulation of macronutrients such as P, Ca, and Mg by 63.1, 32.4, and 51.1%, respectively, and a 100% increase in silicon accumulation as a beneficial element; this was reflected in a 46% increase in total yield, with a higher production of first-quality tubers and a significant increase in dry matter and specific gravity compared to the application of conventional fertilization sources. Therefore, silicate fertilizers are an important alternative to improve quality and production through a better dynamic of accumulation of essential and beneficial nutrients in potato-producing areas in Colombia.</p> David Fernando Torres-Hernandez Elberth Hernando Pinzón-Sandoval Helber Enrique Balaguera-López Amanda Silva-Parra Pedro Jose Almanza-Merchán Copyright (c) 2024 Revista de Ciencias Agrícolas 2024-01-26 2024-01-26 41 1 e1224 e1224 10.22267/rcia.20244101.224 Assessment of transitory crops in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L) agroforestry in Páez, Boyacá <p>Agroforestry systems incorporate several productive components per unit area to yield efficiency. However, considering the high degree of complexity inherent to interspecific plant-plant interactions, little is known about most of these systems' real productive potential and efficiency. In this context, it is important to analyze the interactions between the components to identify potential favorable associations. The objective of this research was to evaluate the performance of the transitory crops maize (<em>Zea mays</em> L) and cowpea (<em>Vigna unguiculata</em> L) in a family farming system under three agroforestry arrangements with cocoa in the municipality of Páez, Boyacá, Colombia. A split plot design was used, where the main plots corresponded to three shade forest species, which were associated with cocoa and the transient crops. The subplots corresponded to three planting systems: CS1cocoa+maize, CS2 coca+beans and CS3 cocoa+maize+beans. The effect on agronomic and productive traits of transitory crops (maize and beans) was evaluated, and an economic analysis was carried out. For beans, the effect of the cropping system on yield (t. ha-1) stood out, while for maize, the statistical effect was given by the forest x cropping system interaction in most of the variables evaluated. Considering the interspecific interactions found under the influence of different forests, the use of Colombian mahogany as a companion species in these intercropping systems is suggested. The cost analysis revealed that the maize-bean association is more efficient in the equivalent use of land. Therefore, the data obtained reveal more efficient strategies for sustainable cocoa productivity in Colombia.</p> Lindays Alfonso-Alfonso Laura Dayana Escobar-Pachajoa Felipe Montealegre-Bustos Fabricio Eulalio Carvalho Albert Sneyder Carvajal-Rivera Jairo Rojas-Molina Copyright (c) 2024 Revista de Ciencias Agrícolas 2024-02-15 2024-02-15 41 1 e1225 e1225 10.22267/rcia.20244101.225 Soil physical properties as indicators of histosol degradation in Colombia <p>Changes in soil utilization exert detrimental effects on its properties, emphasizing the critical need for a thorough evaluation to mitigate their repercussions on the ecosystem. This investigation was conducted aiming to assess the physical degradation in histosol soils in the Putumayo department, Colombia, caused by alterations in land use. For this, we assessed two types of areas: those without intervention (T0) and those affected by deformation in mound structures caused by the combined actions of livestock and high moisture, commonly known as “tatucos”. The assessment categorized these areas based on the percentage deformation incidence: low degradation (T1), moderate degradation (T2), and high degradation (T3). Sampling was conducted at a depth of 15 cm, both in the tatuco-affected zone and its surrounding area. Measurements were taken for mound height and diameter, as well as physical properties such as bulk and real density, porosity, volumetric moisture, penetration resistance, and the degree of organic material decomposition. The primary land use identified in the study area was extensive livestock farming. It was established that in areas with high levels of degradation (T3), there was an average mound diameter of 151.9 ± 4.46 cm and a height of 22.7 ± 2.59 cm. Regarding physical properties in the area adjacent to the mound, there was a bulk density of 0.24<sup>-3</sup>, a real density of 1.62<sup>-3</sup>, and a penetration resistance of 0.71 MPa. These values were significantly higher than those observed in areas without intervention. Hence, it can be inferred that the alteration in land use is causing a substantial change in the physical properties of these soils, which are vital for the agroecosystems in the southern regions of Colombia.</p> Ricardo Javier Aguillon-Estacio Irene Alejandra Muñoz-España Adriana del Socorro Guerra-Acosta Adriana Bolívar-Gamboa Elberth Hernando Pinzón-Sandoval Copyright (c) 2024 Revista de Ciencias Agrícolas 2024-03-18 2024-03-18 41 1 e1226 e1226 10.22267/rcia.20244101.226 Optimization of spray drying for lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) pulp using response surface methodology <p>Lulo (<em>Solanum quitoense</em> Lam.) is an exotic fruit with high potential in international markets due to its intense aromatic characteristics and its content of nutritional and bioactive compounds. However, it is highly perishable, which backslashes its potential for international exportation. Despite the drying processes affect the nutritional and sensory characteristics, fruit powders obtained by spray drying are promising products for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. This work was conducted aiming to optimize the spray-drying process of lulo pulp. A Box-Behnken design with response surface methodology was used, in which the factors evaluated were inlet air temperature (160 - 220 °C), maltodextrin concentration (15-35%), and whey protein concentration (WPC) (1-5% w/w). The feed rate and air velocity were kept constant at 4 mL/min and 9 m/s, respectively. The optimization resulted in an inlet air temperature of 205.6 °C, 35% maltodextrin, and 1.96% WPC. Under these conditions, the mathematical model estimated a powder yield of 62.8%, a moisture content of 2.3 %, a bulk density of 0.49 g/mL, a solubility of 91.9 %, and an ascorbic acid content of 120.8 mg/100 g powder. The optimal process conditions and the mixture of encapsulants (MD and WPC) allow for obtaining lulo powder with adequate yield and quality characteristics.</p> Oscar Arango-Bedoya Roberth Rojas-Inagan Hernan Martínez-Suarez Andrés Hurtado-Benavides Copyright (c) 2024 Revista de Ciencias Agrícolas 2024-04-12 2024-04-12 41 1 e1227 e1227 10.22267/rcia.20244101.227 Characterization of land use, from a social, economic and environmental dynamics <p>Lack of data regarding the agricultural activities in the area of Imués (Nariño, Colombia) has hindered understanding of current land uses and their impacts on natural resources, which causes this area to be considered one of the most arid in the region. To comprehend these processes, a description of the main land uses and agricultural and livestock production systems was made. This was carried out from a social, economic, and environmental dynamic through the characterization and typification of farms. Groups or clusters were constructed, which were previously subjected to qualitative statistical analysis, using the multiple correspondence factor analysis (MCAF) method. Subsequently, the hierarchical classification method was applied. The MCAF was able to establish four factors that were framed in the interaction of climate, altitude, and the productive component associated with it. Similarly, taking into account the social, economic, and environmental perspectives, it was determined that these groups, under their particularities and agricultural vocations, exert pressure on the territory's strategic ecosystems and diversity of flora and fauna. This makes their rural activities unsustainable. It was also found that there is a vocation for livestock exploitation and some minor species in the middle and high-altitude zones of the territory. However, it was established for other groupings that their major typologies were associated with conventional management without any planning. This generates negative impacts on soil resources, such as erosion and forest fragmentation, together with the expansion of the agricultural frontier.</p> Alvaro Javier Ceballos-Freire Diego Andrés Muñoz Iván Felipe Benavides Carlos Julio Tobar Copyright (c) 2024 Revista de Ciencias Agrícolas 2024-04-16 2024-04-16 41 1 e1228 e1228 10.22267/rcia.20244101.228 Control failure of deltamethrin in Colombian populations of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) <p>Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) is a major pest in stored cereals in Colombia, which causes significant losses in production. Chemical control is the main tool used in the country, and despite the common use of insecticides such as deltamethrin, resistance has been observed in some Colombian populations but is a worldwide problem. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of deltamethrin and the combination of deltamethrin and piperonyl butoxide in Colombian populations of R. dominica. Failure to control and survival tests showed that the recommended doses on product labels were insufficient to protect the grain from this pest. Failure control demonstrated that mortality did not exceed 80 percent in the populations studied. Differences in susceptibility were observed between populations, with El Espinal and Neiva highlighted as less susceptible and Pore as the most sensitive to the action of insecticides. The combination of deltamethrin and piperonyl butoxide reduced insect survival but did not effectively control it (0–20%). These results suggest that R. dominica may be developing resistance to insecticides, as has been found in other countries. This underscores the importance of conducting toxicological studies and the need to investigate molecules with diverse modes of action, contributing to the strengthening of chemical management strategies. To achieve effective control, it is necessary to implement Integrated Pest Management (IPM) with a focus on alternative methods to chemical control.</p> Carlos Ramírez-Cabrera Gheraldin López-Díaz Nelson A. Canal Tito Bacca Copyright (c) 2024 Revista de Ciencias Agrícolas 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 41 1 e1229 e1229 10.22267/rcia.244101.229