Revista de Ciencias Agrícolas <p align="justify">The Revista de Ciencias Agrícolas is a recognized means of divulgation and distribution of scientific and technological research nationwide and abroad, biannually publishes original articles written in english, on topics related to Agricultural Sciences, which present in detail results of research in agriculture, forestry, agricultural biotechnology and food which are subject to the assessment process by nationals and foreign peers, and to review and approval by the Editorial Committee of the magazine.</p> <p><strong>DOI:</strong>&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Universidad de Nariño en-US Revista de Ciencias Agrícolas 0120-0135 Evaluation of phosphate solubilization from phosphoric rock via Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp <p>Phosphoric rock is the main source of phosphorus used in fertilizers. In most cases, it is applied alone or mixed with other nutrients in water; however, its low solubility means that it is not used efficiently, causing excess phosphorus to be wasted. As a result, it generates economic expenses to the farmer, or causing problems of eutrophication in water sources. In this article, different mixtures of solubilizing fungi with coffee pulp stillage were studied to improve phosphates’ solubility in phosphate rock. Despite that in different studies is clear the fungi’s role in P solubilization, its application on soils is still made without any additional treatment. Phosphoric rock samples were obtained from the municipality of Aipe (Huila) and were treated for 6 weeks with coffee pulp stillage (<em>Coffea arabica</em>) and inoculums of <em>Aspergillus niger</em> and <em>Penicillium sp</em>, pH and temperature controlled. The fungus species were obtained from environmental media on PDA culture, then it was isolated and identified on MEA culture according to standard morphologic identification methods. <em>Aspergillus niger</em> showed greater mycelial growth in the stillage and a higher concentration of phosphates dissolved in the aqueous phase (72 ± 31 M) compared to <em>Penicillium sp</em>. The mixture of the two fungi in the treatments allowed to obtain the highest percentage of phosphates (17.8% of the phosphate soluble in H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> 40% v / v).</p> Leandro Argotte Oscar Fernando Barreiro Néstor Enrique Cerquera Hans Thielin Castro ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 37 2 10.22267/rcia.203702.133 Biofertilizer potential of digestates from small-scale biogas plants in the Cuban context <p>The residual sludge from anaerobic digestion known as digestate has been used as a valuable biofertilizer, but the effect of the substrate, the configuration of the reactor and the operating parameter changes the quality and amounts of nutrients in it. Therefore, it is necessary to know its potential characteristic of fertilizer to apply it correctly in crops of national interest. The aim of this work was to characterize the digestate generated from three biodigester technologies (fixed dome, floating drum and tubular) and three substrates: swine manure, cow manure, and co-digestion of swine and cow manure obtained in the province of Sancti Spíritus, Cuba, in terms of nutrient and matter content. For this purpose, stratified statistical sampling was carried out to ensure representative samples and descriptive statistical techniques were used to process the analyses. The digestate was divided into liquid and solid fractions according to the dry matter content (15%). The content of organic matter and ash represented around 50% for both fractions, which enhances its value as a soil conditioner. The nutrient content of both fractions showed good fertilizing properties, having a nutrient ratio (NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup>:PO<sub>4</sub><sup>3-</sup>:K<sup>+</sup>:SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup>:Mg<sup>2+</sup>:Ca<sup>2+</sup>) in the liquid (0.002:0.80:0.10:1.00:0.89:0.93) and solid (0.0003:0.96:0.002:1.00:0.52:0.50) fractions, that would contribute to the return nutrients to the soil. The quality of the liquid fraction as irrigation water was assessed as good, according to the relationship between the concentration of the nutrients (Ca, Mg, Na and K) and hardness. Further research is needed on the appropriate dosage for the different crops, and its contribution to sustainable agriculture in the Cuban context.</p> Leyanet Odales Edelbis López Lisbet Mailin López Janet Jiménez Ernesto Luis Barrera ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 37 2 10.22267/rcia.203702.134 Quality parameters of pink pepper seeds as sustainability indicators <p>The poor management and marketing of rose pepper (<em>Schinus terebinthifolius</em> Raddi) in São Pedro D'Aldeia - RJ called the local governments’ attention to adopt measures that favor the value chain, increase income, train rural producers, and launch the first Simplified Forest Management Plan. All of this, to authorize the sustainable management of this species. This study aimed to evaluate the quality parameters of pink pepper as sustainability indicators. The following was measured: the moisture content, purity, uniformity in the sieve, and the weight of one thousand seeds in samples obtained from three different batches. The germination test was only carried out for samples from lot 3. The results showed that the high moisture content of the seeds (22.99%) has a negative effect on their quality, facilitating the action of spoilage organisms. The degree of purity was satisfactory (97.1%). The seeds from lot 1 were larger and more uniform than the seeds from lots 2 and 3. Only lot 1 presented the weight of seeds compatible with that required by MAPA. The germination rate was 72%, which did not vary between seeds of different sizes. The settlement’s extractive activity is moving towards sustainability, which can be improved by incorporating good seed collection, processing and storage practices.</p> Aline Nahanna Rodrigues Gilmara Palermo Madelon Braz Böer Breier Tiago ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 37 2 10.22267/rcia.203702.135 Physicochemical properties and acceptability of three formulations containing fava bean, quinoa and corn flour extrudates <p>Andean grains, widely distributed in the high areas of the Andean Highlands, can help to reduce malnutrition owing to their high content of protein and balance of essential amino acids. Recently, their consumption has changed as they are increasingly used for instant food mixtures. However, a better design and formulation are necessary to maintain Andean grains’ nutritional value and characteristics. In this study, we evaluated the physicochemical properties and acceptability of three formulations containing extruded corn (<em>Zea mays</em> L.), fava bean (<em>Vicia faba</em> L.), and quinoa (<em>Chenopodium quinoa </em>Willd) flours. Grain samples were collected from Choclococha, Acobamba, Huancavelica, Peru, and extruded at 95°C. Subsequently, three flour formulations were prepared. The formulation comprising 30% fava bean flour, 58% quinoa flour, and 12% corn flour consisted of 18.64% protein, 4.87% fat, 8.4% humidity, 2.99% ash, and 62.44% carbohydrates. This formulation with the highest quinoa flour content presented the highest acceptability in terms of color odor and flavor, and the highest protein content and digestibility (72.6%) of all analyzed formulations. Thermal analysis and pasting testing indicated that the formulation with the highest acceptability did not contain native starch; moreover, the proteins in this formulation were denatured.</p> Frank F. Velásquez-Barreto Edson E. Ramirez-Tixe Mariana D. Salazar-Irrazabal Elias Salazar-Silvestre ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 37 2 10.22267/rcia.203702.136 Low-temperature applied to rice seed storage: an efficient protection method against fungal contamination <p>Low-temperatures have long been thought to enhance seed health during storage. Here we tested the effect of low-temperature on the mycoflora associated with rice seeds. Seeds of the IRGA 423 and 424 cultivars were stored in refrigeration (8 and -50°C) or at room temperature (25 ± 10°C). Following storage (1, 45, and 90 days) was investigated the fungi associated with the seeds. We found that, for both cultivars, low-temperature stored seeds had a lower fungal load than the seeds at room temperature. After 90 days of storage, there is a decrease in its incidence rate average of more than 85% in the lower temperature (-50°C). All mycroflora was eliminated at 90 days except for <em>Fusarium sp</em>. The <em>Trichoderma sp.</em> was detected only in IRGA 423 seeds, whereas all other fungi were detected in the treatments in both cultivars. Only <em>Bipolaris</em> sp. was observed in seed-to-seedlings transmission analyses, in both cultivars, at 8°C, and was not detected at -50°C. Based on our results, we recommend low-temperature storage (at -50ºC) of rice seeds.</p> Raimundo Wagner Souza Aguiar Deyvid Rocha Brito Vitor L Nascimento Rodrigo Ribeiro Fidelis Talita Pereira de Souza Ferreira Gil Rodrigues Santos ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-04 2020-12-04 37 2 10.22267/rcia.203702.137 Evaluation of pre-germination treatments in Carapa guianensis AUBL <p>Understanding seed germination of native forest species of the Tropical wet forest is essential for ecosystem regeneration and conservation, which have been affected by the exploitation of wood and non-wood forest products. <em>Carapa guianensis </em>Aulb. (Meliaceae) has been exploited due to the high quality of its wood and seeds. Particularly, the latter is a source of a medicinal oil of high value to the pharmaceutical industry. The indiscriminate use of this species has reduced its population size; therefore, scientific knowledge of its sexual propagation in nurseries is vital. This research aimed to evaluate seed germination of <em>C. guianensis</em> under different pre-germination treatments and substrates at the Centro de Investigación El Mira of AGROSAVIA. Pre-germination assays were conducted in a split-plot design with a random distribution of four repetitions. The cumulative germination percentage (CGP) and mean germination time (<em>t<sub>50</sub></em>) were calculated and analyzed through an ANOVA, and Tukey’s multiple comparison test using InfoStat V.2016. Significant differences for CGP among treatments (<em>p</em>&lt;0.0001) and interactions (<em>p</em>&lt;0.0096) were found. The highest germination percentage (61%) was achieved in S1+T4; however, the <em>T<sub>50 </sub></em>did not show significant differences (<em>p</em>=0.24). This research demonstrates that the highest germination percentage is achieved through a scarification treatment with imbibition in sand substrate under the agroclimatic conditions of Tumaco.</p> Pedro Pablo Bacca Jhon Jairo Zuluaga José Ives Pérez Diana Lucía Burbano Manfred Ricardo Palacio ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 37 2 10.22267/rcia.203702.138 Simultaneous selection indices for yield and stability in sugarcane <p>In Venezuela, sugarcane is grown in distinct environments, including soil categories and cultural practices. This research aimed to identify high-yield and stable sugarcane (<em>Saccharum </em>spp., hybrid) genotypes using selection indices. The experimental material consisted of sixteen genotypes and two commercial varieties as control. The genotypes were evaluated in five locations and by two harvest cycles. The yield in Ton Pol per hectare (TPH) was subjected to an analysis of variance according to the AMMI model. Methodologies of adaptability, stability, and indices that combine both stability and yield were determined. It was possible to distinguish the indices in three groups in the biplot. The superiority index (Pi), geometric adaptability index (GEI), and reliability index (I<em>i</em>) were located in group 1 (G1). This group coincided in classifying genotypes CR87-339, C323-68, and V98-76 as the most stable and the best yield. The second group (G2) consisted of Kang's rank-sum (RS), Stability index (I), Sustainability index (SI), and geometric adaptability index (GDI) and located the genotypes CR87-339 and C323-68 as the most desired. The third group (G3) was constituted by the Ecovalence statistics (<em>W</em>), Shukla’s unbiased stability variance (σ<sup>2</sup><em>i</em>) and the AMMI value (ASV) and classified the genotypes CP87-1762, V90-6 and CP 92-1641 as the best. The indices that best discriminated the genotypes and most associated with yield were PI, GAI and I<em>i</em>.</p> Ramon Antonio Rea Suarez Orlando De Sousa-Vieira Rosaura Briceno Alida Diaz Jose George ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-02-25 2021-02-25 37 2 10.22267/rcia.203702.139 Environmental factors affecting coffee (Coffea arabica L., Var. Castillo) quality in Colombia Southern <p>The determinant factors of coffee cup quality are highly variable and depend on their interaction with coffee production and benefit. This study aimed to analyze soil and climatic factors and their association with the cup quality of Castillo coffee variety of three to five years of age from production units in ecotypes 220A and 221A of the Department of Nariño. The study farms were located in three different altitudinal ranges: ≤1500 m, between 1501 and 1700 m, and &gt;1700 m. Soil, climate, and coffee cup quality variables were analyzed through principal component analysis and cluster analysis. A low level of association was found between climatic and soil nutritional factors and coffee cup quality. Soil Mn, Fe, and Cu contents showed the highest association levels with cup quality, indicated by an average score of 80.89. The highest values of photosynthetically active radiation -PAR- and thermal amplitude were found in La Unión - Nariño, and these variables were associated with the group that obtained the highest cup quality score (82.58). Cup quality was not associated with elevation since the highest scores (85.5 and 82.33) were obtained from production units located at ≤1500 m.a.s.l. and &gt;1700 m.a.s.l, respectively.</p> Claudia Patricia Criollo-Velásquez Johana Alixa Muñoz-Belalcazar Tulio César Lagos-Burbano ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 37 2 10.22267/rcia.203702.140