Revista de Ciencias Agrícolas <p align="justify">The Revista de Ciencias Agrícolas is a recognized means of divulgation and distribution of scientific and technological research nationwide and abroad, biannually publishes original articles written in english, on topics related to Agricultural Sciences, which present in detail results of research in agriculture, forestry, agricultural biotechnology and food which are subject to the assessment process by nationals and foreign peers, and to review and approval by the Editorial Committee of the magazine.</p> <p><strong>DOI:</strong>&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> en-US (William Ballesteros Possu) (Leydy Martínez) Thu, 16 Dec 2021 00:00:00 -0500 OJS 60 Phenology and growth flower of Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. ‘MOON LIGHT’ under greenhouse <p>Carnation crop in Colombia is one of the main income generating activities in Colombian floriculture. However, the growth dynamics and its relationship with thermal time are unknown. For this reason, the objective of this research was to determine the growth and development of carnation (<em>Dianthus caryophyllus </em>L.) cv. ‘Moon Light’ in thermal time when grown in a greenhouse in Bogotá savanna. This research was developed based on the phenological stages and accumulation of Growing Degree Days (GDD). Fresh and dry weight accumulation is fitted to a logistic model that generated a sigmoid type curve. The carnation flower cv. 'Moon light' presented a constant accumulation of dry weight from 15.3 GDD (stage 0 rice) to 777.6 GDD (cut point). The Absolute Growth Rate (AGR) increased slowly during phase I. It presents a rapid and constant gain until reaching the cut-off point with a value of 0.035 g per GDC and an accumulation of 777.6 GDC. The Relative Growth Rate (RGR) presented a continuous decrease with an initial value of 0.0049 g g<sup>-1</sup> per GDD in the bullet stage and a value of 0.0024 g g<sup>-1</sup> per GDD at the cut-off point. Through the results obtained, the floriculture sector will have a technical tool within the productive projection of the carnation variety 'Moon Light' grown in a greenhouse.</p> Elberth Hernando Pinzon-Sandoval, Wilmar Andres Romero-Cuervo, Marco Alexander Luis-Ayala ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 16 Dec 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Reduction of emissions by avoided deforestation in andean high-land tropical forests of Boyacá, Colombia <p>Deforestation and forest degradation, mainly in areas with high carbon density, is one of the most important source of greenhouse gases (GHG). The impact of deforestation on carbon storage in total biomass and its CO<sub>2</sub> emissions is analyzed in four land covers in the <em>Santuario de Fauna y Flora Iguaque </em>(SFFI), Boyacá, Colombia. A total of 32 temporal sampling plots (TSP) of 250 m<sup>2</sup> was established to measure trees with diameter at breast height (dbh) ³ 10 cm whereas 17 TSP of 36 m<sup>2</sup> were established to measure total and stipe height of all frailejones (<em>Espeletia boyacensis</em> Cuatrec, <em>E. tunjana</em> Cuatrec and <em>E. cf</em>. <em>Incana</em>). Above and belowground biomass was estimated with allometric models, whereas carbon was calculated using the 0.47 fraction. The sampling area was proportional to the area of each land cover: open heathlands and moorlands (OMH), dense heathlands and moorlands (DMH), broad-leaved forest with continuous canopy, not on mire (BFCC), natural grassland prevailingly without trees and shrubs (NSWT). BFCC and DMH showed higher carbon storage in biomass (55 and 27 Mg C/ha, respectively). SFFI stored around 135.9 Gg C, from which 25-38 Gg CO<sub>2</sub>e could be emitted to the atmosphere in the 20 next years if the deforestation rates continue. BFCC and OMH are the covers with the highest potential of CO<sub>2</sub> emissions to the atmosphere. Therefore, prioritizing the preservation of these ecosystems by Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) programs, is a key to counter the effects of climate change and ensure the supply of ecosystemic services that support local communities’ livelihoods.</p> Hernán J. Andrade, Milena A. Segura, Erika A. Escobar, Ing. ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 16 Dec 2021 01:07:26 -0500 Effects of static magnetic fields on onion (Allium cepa L.) seed germination and early seedling growth <p>The Onion is a widely cultivated vegetable around the world; however, its seeds have a relatively short storage life, so their viability decreases rapidly. Research has been carried out on onions to improve seed germination and to extend its use for sowing. The magnetic field is considered a simple, inexpensive, and non-invasive physical method to stimulate the germination process, compared to traditional chemical methods. The effects of static magnetic fields on Yellow Granex PRR hybrid onion (<em>Allium cepa</em> L.) seed germination, and early growth were investigated in the laboratory. Seeds were exposed to 10 and 21mT, (mT=militesla), static magnetic fields induced by magnets for 0,5, 3, 6, 12, and 24h; each treatment had four repetitions. The results showed that the low intensity stationary magnetic fields (10 and 21mT) did not cause significant differences in germination, dry weight, or fresh weight, but for the seedling length. It is necessary to increase the intensity of the magnetic fields and the exposure time to achieve important physiological changes that positively affect the germination and growth of onion seeds, and thus contribute to the improvement of their yield and productivity.</p> Ana Cruz Morillo-Coronado, Herlyn Giovanni Martínez-Anzola, Julián David Velandia-Díaz, Yacenia Morillo-Coronado ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 16 Dec 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Reduction of interrow spacing in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) production in the Agreste region of Brazil <p>The interrow spacing commonly used in cassava cultivation in Brazil, especially in the Agreste region of Alagoas, ranges from 100 to 120cm. However, the reduction in row spacing can provide agronomic and environmental benefits in cassava cropping systems. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the performance of two cassava varieties cultivated with reduced interrow spacing. Two experiments were conducted in the field, one in 2015/16 and another in 2017/18. The experimental design used in both experiments was a randomized complete block design, and the treatments were distributed in a split-plot scheme with four replications. Four interrow spacing were evaluated in the main plot: 60, 80, 100 and 120cm, with plants spaced 60cm apart within rows, giving populations of 27,778, 20,833, 16,667 and 13,889 plants per hectare, respectively. In the subplots, two cassava varieties were evaluated: Caravela and Pretinha. An increase in interrow spacing promoted a linear reduction in the stem green mass of cassava. Plant height, leaf green mass, main stem diameter, root yield, tuberous root length, tuberous root diameter, flour percentage, flour yield, and starch content were not influenced by changes in interrow spacing. The Pretinha variety was superior to Caravela in the following evaluated characteristics: stem green mass, the diameter of tuberous roots, root yield, plant height, and flour yield. The results indicate the possibility of altering the interrow spacing in cassava to assist in the cultural management, without impacting crop yield.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Antônio Dias Santiago, Sérgio de Oliveira Procópio, Camila Jorge Bernabé Ferreira, Guilherme Braga Pereira Braz ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 15 Feb 2022 11:08:53 -0500 Geostatistical methods applied to soil fertility zoning <p>In conventional agricultural production systems, soil management is generally carried out without considering the spatial variability of its properties. This situation generates not only soil degradation, but also an increase in production costs associated with the management of this factor. The objective of this research was to evaluate through geostatistical methods the spatial variability of soil fertility in an area of agricultural use (Botana Experimental Farm, University of Nariño). Spatial variability maps were estimated using the ArcGIS 10 program and the Kriging interpolation method, taking into account the optimal ranges of soil fertility for the Andean region as projection parameters for making decisions related to land use in the area studied. The fertility zoning of the selected soils of the farm was established, classifying them into: high, medium and low fertility soils. Of the total area sampled. Most of the experimental farm had low fertility soils (20.7 ha) and only 3 ha had good conditions. Statistical analysis indicated a high variability in soil chemical properties. Physical properties such as pH and bulk density (DBH) showed low variability</p> Cesar Luis Albornoz Bucheli, Carlos A. Benavides, Diego Muñoz ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 04 Mar 2022 16:31:09 -0500 Matriconditioning effect on the physiological performance of chia seeds <p>Matriconditioning permits the slow hydration of seeds, and can help in the reduction of the germination and emergence period of plantlets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the matriconditioning under the imbibition curve and physiological performance of two lots of chia seeds with distinct quality.&nbsp; The study was performed with saved chia seeds, produced by small-scale local farmers. To the imbibition curve confection, seed from both lots were started in the imbibition process on a stainless steel screen placed in plastic boxes of the gerbox type, containing 55.5 grams of sterilized vermiculite and moisturized with distilled water on 100% of the retention capability. The weightings to the imbibition curve were made after 0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 hours from the process start. Simultaneously, in each evaluation period, seeds were submitted to the following tests: germination, first count of germination, plantlet shoot, root and total lengths, emergence velocity index and average time, accumulated emergence. The beginning of phase II of germination in matriconditioned seeds varies in function of the lot quality of chia seeds. The matriconditioning contributes in the physiological performance, increasing and accelerating plantlets emergence.</p> Adriane Witkovski, Alberto Ricardo Stefeni, Jean Carlo Possenti, Adriana Bezerra de Lima, Cristiane Deuner; Vitor Rampazzo Favoretto ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 25 Mar 2022 17:53:07 -0500 Sugar and organic acids content during fruit development in feijoa (Acca sellowiana [O. Berg] Burret) grown in two altitudinal zones <p>In two locations in the Department of Cundinamarca (Colombia), San Francisco de Sales (1,800 meters above sea level [m a.s.l.]); 18.5 °C; 86.1% RH; 573 mm precipitation, and 7,814 W m<sup>-2</sup> of accumulated radiation until <em>Acca sellowiana</em> fruit harvest) and Tenjo (2,580 m a.s.l.; 12.3 °C, 76.4% RH; 190 mm precipitation, and 12,303 W m<sup>-2</sup> of accumulated radiation), the altitudinal effect on the content of organic acids (citric and malic) and sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) during the development of feijoa fruits was determined. In the upper location (Tenjo), at 2,580 m a.s.l., the fruits developed with 1,979 growth degree days (GDD) (180 days after anthesis (daa)), while, in the lower location (San Francisco) at 1,800 m a.s.l., 2,728 GDD were required (155 daa). For organic acids, it was observed that the predominant acid was citric. During the fruit development, the contents of these acids presented low values with a later irregular behavior, finally showing 14.21 mg g<sup>-1</sup> FW (fresh weight) at harvest for citric acid in the lower locality and 7.95 mg g<sup>-1</sup> FW in the upper location. For malic acid, 9.14 mg g<sup>-1</sup> FW was recorded in the lower locality, and 6.88 mg g-1 FW was recorded in the higher location, with a significant difference for citric acid between the two altitudes. The monosaccharides fructose and glucose increased during fruit development, with decreases in the middle of this stage (159 daa for Tenjo, 127 daa for San Francisco de Sales). However, the disaccharide sucrose showed significant differences in its accumulation, with a much higher content in the higher locality at 2,580 m a.s.l. (4.27 mg g<sup>-1</sup> FW) than in the lower locality at 1,800 m a.s.l. (1.03 mg g<sup>-1</sup> FW), probably because of a higher fruit respiration t in the lower locality where the temperature was higher.</p> Alfonso Parra-Coronado, Gerhard Fischer, Helber Enrique Balaguera-López, Luz Marina Melgarejo ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 25 Mar 2022 18:03:17 -0500 Competitive ability of sweet sorghum cultivars against hairy beggarticks <p>Among the weeds that cause interference with the growth and development of sweet sorghum stands out beggarticks, especially by that present high competitive ability by the resources available in the middle. The aim of this study is to compare the competitive ability of sweet sorghum (<em>Sorghum bicolor </em>(L.) Moench) against hairy beggarticks (<em>Bidens pilosa </em>L.), as a function of cultivar and plant proportion. Experiments were conducted into greenhouse in completely randomized design, with four replications. Treatments were arranged in replacement series in the proportions of 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100% (sorghum:weed) which amounted to 20:0, 15:5, 10:10, 5:15 and 0:20 plants per pot of sweet sorghum (cultivars BRS 506, BRS 509 or BRS 511) against hairy beggarticks. Fifty days after emergence, plant leaf area (LA), aboveground dry mass (DM), photosynthesis (A) and transpiration (E) rates were assessed. Competitive ability was analyzed by using the graphical analysis method, building diagrams based on total and relative productivity. Competitiveness, clustering coefficient and aggressiveness were also determined. Sorghum cultivars, in general terms, were harmed independently of the proportion of hairy beggarticks. There were small differences in competitive ability among sorghum cultivars; BRS 509 demonstrated to be slightly higher competitive than BRS 506 and BRS 511 against hairy beggarticks. This, however, is unlikely to provide competitive advantage for BRS 509 in production fields and hairy beggarticks should be efficiently controlled early in crop cycle to avoid productivity losses, independently of sorghum cultivar.</p> Leandro Galon, Carlos Orestes Santin, André Luiz Radünz, Germani Concenço, André Andres, Alexandre Ferreira da Silva, Felipe Nonemacher, Gismael Francisco Perin, Ignácio Aspiazú ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 26 May 2022 10:05:38 -0500 Performance of the ‘Anna’ apple (Malus Domestica Borkh.) in Tropical Highlands: A review. <p>The 'Anna' apple is a variety of low requirements of winter chill (250 to 300 chilling hours ≤7.2 ºC). This apple has essential health benefits and remarkable adaptive potential in tropical and subtropical areas affected by climate change. Thus, this review presents the significance of the 'Anna' apple cultivation, the phenological and eco-physiological modifications, and the current state of agronomic management when continuous crops are managed in tropical highlands. The production of this apple in tropical highlands has outstanding potential to obtain cyclical or continuous harvests (two harvests per year) in certain areas with specific environmental conditions, implementing a particular management system. In plantations, it is crucial to carry out some agronomic practices during the reproductive phenology so that the apple tree does not enter into an endodormancy. These are water stress - defoliation – tie-down branches, and the application of dormancy-breaking agents (flower-inducing compounds). In Colombia, ‘Anna’ variety was introduced in 1985 and is grown in areas with temperatures between 14 and 20°C, altitudes between 1700 and 2800 meters above sea level (m a.s.l), with bimodal and monomodal rain regimes, and solar brightness between 800 and 2000 hours a year. The harvest is between 100 to 120 days after anthesis, with firmness values of 38.38 N, a soluble solids content of 8.58 °Brix, and total titratable acidity of 0.7% of the fruit. This documentation indicates a good production with great potential in terms of growth and development, earliness, and quality of the 'Anna' apple tree in Colombian highlands.</p> Javier Giovanni Alvarez, Diego Alejandro Gutiérrez, Gerhard Fischer ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 16 Dec 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Soils erotion in the main pineapple producing municipalities of Valle del Cauca <p>Pineapple is the third most-produced tropical fruit worldwide; however, it is a crop that, can lead to the generation and intensification of processes such as soil erosion due to its handling. The article presents a bibliographic review about the factors that influence erosion in soils dedicated to pineapple cultivation, addressing articles reported in the international literature, subsequently positioning it in the context of the main producing municipalities presented in the Valle del Cauca region. The available research covers the last four decades, where losses are estimated between 35 and 178 tons. ha<sup>-1</sup>. year<sup>-1</sup>; the topography, the conditions of the access roads, some management practices, and edaphic properties related to erodibility stand out among the most important factors. Finally, based on the climatic, edaphological and topographic characteristics reported in the literature for the main pineapple producing region of Valle del Cauca, and considering current management practices, it is found that this area can present very high erosion values since the soils are susceptible, and the slopes are steep, some of them even higher than 70%. Therefore, it is suggested to carry out more research to determine the erodibility and erosivity of these areas to know the potential degradation index, which will function as a valuable tool for decision-making, the generation of management and conservation recommendations of these soils.</p> Carolina Martinez López, Juan Carlos Menjívar, Raúl Saavedra ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 08 Feb 2022 09:54:43 -0500