Revista de Ciencias Agrícolas https://revistas.udenar.edu.co/index.php/rfacia <p align="justify">The Revista de Ciencias Agrícolas is a recognized means of divulgation and distribution of scientific and technological research nationwide and abroad, biannually publishes original articles written in english, on topics related to Agricultural Sciences, which present in detail results of research in agriculture, forestry, agricultural biotechnology and food which are subject to the assessment process by nationals and foreign peers, and to review and approval by the Editorial Committee of the magazine.</p> <p><strong>DOI:</strong>&nbsp;<a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.22267/rcia" target="_blank" rel="noopener">http://dx.doi.org/10.22267/rcia</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> en-US revistafacia@udenar.edu.co (William Ballesteros Possu) revistafacia@udenar.edu.co (Leydy Martínez) Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500 OJS 3.1.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Woody species associated with coffee production systems in southern Colombia https://revistas.udenar.edu.co/index.php/rfacia/article/view/5828 <p>In the coffee zone of the town La Unión- Nariño, native or introduced trees are associated with the productive systems of the farms, mainly because they provide shade for coffee crops, where particular aspects such as species biodiversity and silvicultural management are unknown. With the aim of knowing the woody species of common use and the cultural importance, a semi structured survey was applied to 100 coffee growers who were selected at random and aleatorily distributed in three altitudinal ranges: (m.a.s.l.): I (&lt;1500), II (1500-1800) and III (&gt; 1800). Species richness was determined for each chosen range; for diversity between ranges, the Jaccard Index (JI) and the Cultural Importance Index (CI) were used. The latter was determined by adding up the intensity of use (IU), frequency of citation (FC), and use value (UV). In the three altitude ranges evaluated, 59 tree species were found. These were distributed in 32 botanical families and 46 genera. The fabaceae family was the most representative, followed by rutaceae, myrtaceae and bignoniaceae; 45.8% of the species were introduced. Among the altitudinal ranges, a low degree similarity was found; ranks I and II shared 24 species, which is equivalent to 33.8% of their floristic composition. As for ranges I and III, they had an even lower degree of similarity: 24.2%; only 17 species were shared.&nbsp;The species <em>I. densiflora</em> had the highest percentage of CI, with 32.92%, followed by <em>C. sinensis</em> with 31.98%; then the species <em>T. gigantea</em> and<em> P. americana</em> with 30.49% and 26.27% respectively. These species were of great importance to coffee growers due to the positive impact they have on the family economy and their contribution to the environmental well-being of production systems.</p> Héctor Ramiro Ordoñez-Jurado, Marbel Cerón, Marbel, Dayana Lizeth Martinez O, Dayana ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://revistas.udenar.edu.co/index.php/rfacia/article/view/5828 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Socio-economic characterization of the traditional cacao agroforestry system (Theobroma cacao L.) https://revistas.udenar.edu.co/index.php/rfacia/article/view/6210 <p>Cacao farmers face many challenges to increase yield while adjusting their farms to future environmental and socio-economic uncertainties. Improving the management practices of cacao (<em>Theobroma cacao</em> L.) cultivation systems requires knowledge of their baseline and the determining factors affecting them. The main goal of this research was to characterize traditional cacao agroforestry systems of smallholder farmers in the Municipality of Tumaco, Nariño, Colombia. Using a semi-structured survey and a sample of 218 farmers, the socioeconomic characteristics of the cacao production system were analyzed. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) grouped and discriminated the cacao growers. The PCA formed five components representing 50.86% of the total variability, while the ACM grouped them into five factors explaining 29.82% of the variability. The cacao cultivation is a traditional activity of smallholder farmers with very low yields. The age of the farmers is over 50 years old, with despicable levels of education; there was no evidence of generational change. The study shows that the traditional cacao production system is not an attractive activity for young people or investors given its marginality and low economic projection. Timely strategies and subsequent early actions will be imperative to face the main environmental, socio-economic, and productive challenges, which will allow the cacao activity to be a source of well-being for cacao growers and the environment in the region.</p> William Ballesteros Possú, Jorge Fernando Navia, Jesus Geovanny Solarte ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://revistas.udenar.edu.co/index.php/rfacia/article/view/6210 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Coffee crop weeds: refuge and food source for pests’ natural enemies https://revistas.udenar.edu.co/index.php/rfacia/article/view/6515 <p>Weeds in coffee crops have diverse ecosystem services, such as sheltering and feeding natural enemies of pest insects. This study aimed to identify the potential of coffee weeds as food and refuge for natural enemies in shaded and sun coffee crops. Weeds were sampled in a 100 m transect installed in each type of coffee crop. Malaise traps and sweep-nets were both used to capture insects every 15 days for five months<strong>.</strong> After identifying the dominant weeds, observations and a direct recollection of insects were carried out at three different hours during three days. Faunistic analyses were performed, as well as the Bray and Curtis similarity analysis and the Student's t test. <em>Emilia sonchifolia, Acmella oppositifolia</em>, <em>Bidens pilosa</em> were predominant in the free exposure sun plantation coffee crops and <em>Commelina diffusa</em>, <em>Salvia palifolia, Stachytarpheta cayennensis</em> in under shade coffee crops. High insect activity was found between 11:30 am-12:00 pm. In these weeds, we found about 15 families, the most important were Formicidae, Braconidae, and Coccinellidae. We concluded that the shaded coffee crops exhibited a natural enemy community similar to that of the sun. Through this exploratory study, we verified that weeds harbor a diversity of natural enemies important to the coffee agroecosystems.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Leonel Fernando Arévalo, Germán Felipe Vasco R., Arledys Albino-Bohórquez, Jessica Morales, Tito Bacca ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://revistas.udenar.edu.co/index.php/rfacia/article/view/6515 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation of physical and chemical variables of organic substrates in a hydroponic system for strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch) https://revistas.udenar.edu.co/index.php/rfacia/article/view/6852 <p>This project is presented as an innovative and clean alternative that optimizes the use of small areas for strawberry (<em>Fragaria ananassa</em> Duch) production in the department of Nariño. This research was conducted at the Centro Internacional de Producción Limpia Lope -SENA- Regional Nariño, with the aim of evaluating physical and chemical variables of organic substrates such as coconut fiber, rice husk, and their mixtures for strawberry (<em>Fragaria ananassa</em> Duch) variety Albión production in a hydroponic system. Six treatments and four repetitions were performed; the treatments were 100% rice husk, 70% rice husk and 30% coconut fiber mixture, 50% of each of the substrates used, a mixture of 70% coconut fiber and 30% rice husk, 100% coconut fiber, and a control in soil with plastic cover. A comparative analysis was made between the average values obtained in the initial stage and the final stage of the experiment, evaluating physical and chemical properties such as bulk density, real density, gravimetric moisture, granulometry, pH, and electrical conductivity. The experiment showed that taking initial and final measurements of the substrates allows adequate monitoring for optimal crop development since a substrate with a high percentage of particles in the sieve &lt;0.25, electrical conductivities greater than 2000 µS.cm-1, and an increase in bulk density can produce salinization and compaction, negatively impacting the crop.</p> Elizabeth Marcela Guerrero-Guerrero, Hernando Criollo-Escobar, German Cháves, Jorge Alberto Vélez ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://revistas.udenar.edu.co/index.php/rfacia/article/view/6852 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Detection of auxinic compounds in germinating seedlings https://revistas.udenar.edu.co/index.php/rfacia/article/view/4560 <p>Tryptophan (TRP) is a metabolite from which several important metabolic syntheses arise in plants, animals, and humans. In bacteria and fungi, it is a precursor of Indole Acetic acid (IAA) using various metabolic pathways. The objective of this study is the detection of intermediate metabolites in the synthesis of IAA in seeds of several species in the germination process. In the study, seeds of plant species grown in deionized water were placed in order to stimulate germination and samples were taken every 24 hours. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for the detection of the compounds. The results show that the pH of the medium is altered and there is no pattern of behavior. Regarding the detected compounds, in addition to TRP, there is indole-3-acetamide (IAM), 3-indoleacetonitrile (IAN), tryptamine (TRM), which are part of the TRP-dependent routes, since they use this amino acid as a precursor. Anthranilic acid (AA) and kynurenine (KYN), which are part of the Independent TRP pathway, were also detected. IAA and TRP were also detected during the germination process of the studied seeds (Sorghum bicolor, T aesativum, Zea mayz, Phaseolus vulgaris, G. hirsutum, Cucurbita maxima). Finally, it was observed that the seeds, due to weight loss, suffer physical wear during the germination process, since there is a difference between the initial dry weight and the weight of the seeds at the end of the study.</p> Amanda Alejandra Oliva-Hernández, Jesús Di Carlo Quiroz-Velásquez, Jesus Gerardo García-Olivares, Israel García-León, Cristian Lizarazo-Ortega, Jose Luis Hernández-Mendoza ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://revistas.udenar.edu.co/index.php/rfacia/article/view/4560 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Response of two pepper species (Capsicum chinense Jacq. and Capsicum frutescens L.) to salt stress at germination stage in Northeast Brazil https://revistas.udenar.edu.co/index.php/rfacia/article/view/5710 <p>Salinity is one of the striking problems in agricultural production in many parts of the world. Seed germination and seedling growth are two critical stages for the establishment of crops generally most sensitive to salt stress. The present study aimed at evaluating the germination and initial growth of pepper seedlings produced from seeds under different soaking times in NaCl solutions. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design, in a 2 × 4 × 5 factorial scheme using two pepper species (<em>Capsicum chinense</em> Jacq. and <em>Capsicum frutescens</em> L.), four levels of electrical conductivity (EC) of solutions (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 dS m<sup>-1</sup>) and five times of seed soaking in the solutions (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h), with three replications. The traits evaluated were the number of germinated seedlings, percentage of germination, seedling height, and root length. The results showed that <em>C. frutescens</em> pepper was more tolerant to different times of soaking in saline solutions prepared with NaCl compared to <em>C. chinense</em>. Thus, the results suggest that depending on the pepper species, it is recommended to use seeds primed in saline solutions with salinity levels compatible with those under field conditions (in saline soils and/or irrigation with saline waters).</p> Mairton Gomes da Silva, Ancélio Ricardo de Oliveira Gondim, Eder Ramon Feitoza Ledo, Anna Hozana Francilino, Yasmin da Silva, Hans Raj Gheyi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://revistas.udenar.edu.co/index.php/rfacia/article/view/5710 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Macrofauna evaluation in two coffee agroforestry systems https://revistas.udenar.edu.co/index.php/rfacia/article/view/5809 <p>Knowing the soil macrofauna and its distribution is important to predict the degradation state of a soil as well as its physical properties and biological components. This research was carried out in coffee ecotopes 220A and 221A in southern Colombia. Two systems were evaluated, <em>Coffea arabica</em> var Castillo and native forest coffee, during two different seasons, winter and summer. Sampling was carried out using the tropical soil biology and fertility program (TSBF) methodology. The statistical treatment was carried out by means of a non-parametric analysis of variance Kruskal-Wall test. The density of orders present per square meter was evaluated, demonstrating that the highest density occurred in the winter season in the ecotope 220A and 221A forest system, with averages of 9.33 orders/ m<sup>2</sup> and 9.67 orders/ m<sup>2</sup>, respectively. The highest number of density of individuals was obtained in winter, in the forest system and coffee in the 220A and 221A ecotopes with averages ranging between 1808 individuals/ m<sup>2</sup> and 1368 individuals/ m<sup>2</sup>, statistically exceeding the number of individuals/ m<sup>2</sup> that appeared in summer season. For biomass, the highest contribution was obtained in the winter season, with averages of 186.5 grams/ m<sup>2</sup> in the 220A ecotope and 205.74 grams/ m<sup>2</sup> for the 221A ecotope, exceeding the biomass that was presented in coffee winter season time, both in the 220A and 221A ecotopes.</p> Jorge Fernando Navia, Wilmer Libey Delgado-Gualmatan, Tulio César Lagos-Burbano ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://revistas.udenar.edu.co/index.php/rfacia/article/view/5809 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Perigonium color and the antioxidant capacity of cañihua (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen) https://revistas.udenar.edu.co/index.php/rfacia/article/view/6934 <p>Currently, it is necessary to know the content of bioactive compounds, one of them is the antioxidant capacity of food, which has nutritional importance and functional properties, since these components are natural and play an important role in the prevention and treatment of several diseases, including cancer. Therefore, the objective of the investigation was to determine the nutritional quality and the relationship between the color intensity of the perigonium and the antioxidant capacity of the <em>Chenopodium pallidicaule</em> (<em>Ch. pallidicaule</em>). As material of study, we used four accessions of <em>Ch. pallidicaule</em> with perigonia of defined colors such as light yellow, orange, purple and black. We developed the physical-chemical analyzes and the grain functional components in the Agroindustrial Engineering Laboratories of the National University of Altiplano Puno, and in the Laboratory of Chromatography and Spectrometry of the San Antonio de Abad National University of Cusco. The results were submitted to Pearson's correlation analysis, and they show that the flavonoid indices with the perigonium color intensity values express significant positive correlation. In addition, the antioxidant capacity equivalent to Trolox was significantly different between the perigonium color intensities, where the accession with black perigonium turns out to be the one that reached the highest value (5g eq. Trolox/100g sample). We conclude that the color of the perigonium exhibited antioxidant capacity, which kept a direct correlation with the flavonoid content.</p> Manuel Alfredo Callohuanca-Pariapaza, Evaristo Mamani-Mamani, Javier Mamani-Paredes, Ali William Canaza-Cayo ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://revistas.udenar.edu.co/index.php/rfacia/article/view/6934 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Carbon capture in three land use systems in the Colombian Amazonia https://revistas.udenar.edu.co/index.php/rfacia/article/view/6505 <p>The main strategies to combat climate change are reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increasing carbon sinks in terrestrial ecosystems such as forests, forest plantations, and agroforestry systems. Deforestation and land use changes in the Amazonia bear great responsibility both for the fixation and emission of GHG. The aim of this research was to estimate the carbon stored in above-ground biomass of forests, rubber plantations (<em>Hevea brasiliensis</em> Muell Arg.), and trees in pastures in the Colombian Amazonia piedmont. Data was collected in 40 farms located in the rural area of the municipality of Belén de Los Andaquíes (Colombia). A total of 174 temporal sampling plots of 250 m<sup>2</sup> each were established (80 in forests, 40 in rubber plantations and 54 in pastures with trees). In these plots, the diameter at breast height (dbh) was measured in trees with dbh ≥ 10 cm, and the above-ground biomass was estimated with allometric models for the Colombian Amazon. The carbon stored was 154.1 Mg ha<sup>-1</sup> in forests, 1.4 Mg ha<sup>-1</sup> in pastures with trees and 138.9 Mg ha<sup>-1</sup> in rubber plantations. Positive changes for mitigation of climate change could be achieved through the conversion of agricultural areas, mainly pastures, to forests (+560 Mg CO<sub>2</sub> ha<sup>-1</sup>). Likewise, if deforestation stops in the area, the estimated emissions reduction would be 0.16 Tg CO<sub>2</sub> year<sup>-1</sup>.</p> Yelly-Yamparli Pardo-Rozo, Hernán-Jair Andrade-Castañeda, Jader Muñoz-Ramos, Jaime-Enrique Velásquez-Restrepo ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://revistas.udenar.edu.co/index.php/rfacia/article/view/6505 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Soil vulnerability index to climatic variability in coffee regions of Colombia https://revistas.udenar.edu.co/index.php/rfacia/article/view/6955 <p>Global climate change is one of the main factors threatening agriculture. In this context, variations in precipitation have the strongest effect on soil fertility, plant nutrient availability, and erosion. This research aimed to assess soil vulnerability to climate variability in the central coffee-growing region of Colombia. This study analyzed soil components involved in the sustainability of the coffee production system as affected by extreme high and low precipitation events. For evaluation, three sensitivity indices were constructed, with a weighted aggregation structure and with weight values defined from expert knowledge. The indices were estimated by randomly selecting 432 coffee farms in the municipalities of Balboa and Santuario in Risaralda department and Salamina in Caldas department. The soil nutrient availability and conservation vulnerability index was moderate in the three municipalities (Balboa=2.87 and coefficient of variation-CV 13%; Santuario=2.88 and CV 10%; Salamina=2.9 and CV 9%). The soil leaching vulnerability index was very low in Balboa (4.33 and CV 3%) and Salamina (4.74 and CV 7%) and low in Santuario (3.57 and CV 19%). The soil loss vulnerability index was low in Balboa (3.32 and CV 10.03%) and Salamina (3.49 and CV 11.43%) and moderate in Santuario (3.13 and CV 9.34%). Lastly, the vulnerability of coffee-growing soil to climate variability was low in Balboa (3.33) and Salamina (3.45) and moderate in Santuario (3.09). Based on these results, in the three municipalities, coffee growers must introduce farming practices towards improving soil resilience and decreasing soil vulnerability to high and low precipitation extremes by adequately managing the sources and doses of fertilizers, soil conditioners, and compost and by implementing integrated management of weeds and litterfall.</p> Luz Adriana Lince-Salazar, Siavosh Sadeghian-Khalajabadi, Vanessa Catalina Díaz-Poveda ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://revistas.udenar.edu.co/index.php/rfacia/article/view/6955 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Potentialities and limitations of Planosols with distinct depths of diagnostic horizon https://revistas.udenar.edu.co/index.php/rfacia/article/view/5424 <p>There is a variation in the depth of subsurface horizon of Planosols in semi-arid region, which may influence the agricultural potential and affect food production. The general aim of this study was to identify potentialities and limitations of two Planosols as a function of subsurface horizon depth. The adjacent profiles P1 and P2 were studied in Pentecoste (Ceará, Brazil). Morphological, physical, and chemical analyses were done aiming at soil characterization. Soil bulk density (BD), porosity, and penetration resistance (PR) were analyzed in a completely randomized split-plot design with four replicates to compare P1 and P2 and the horizons Ap and Btf. Btf was found at 62cm depth in P1 and at 18 cm depth in P2. Indicatives of water saturation were more evident in P2. The profile P1 showed lower hardness and higher friability, as well as higher acidity in subsurface (pH<sub>H2O</sub> from 4.4 to 4.7) and higher aluminum content (1.2cmol<sub>c</sub> kg<sup>-1</sup>). Both profiles were eutrophic and showed low contents of organic carbon (1.5 to 8.5g kg<sup>-1</sup>) and phosphorus (0.9 to 3.9mg kg<sup>-1</sup>). The sodium percentage in CEC was 9.1% in P1 and 5.5% in P2. Water retention increases in Btf compared with Ap was 7.3% in P2 and 2.7% in P1. Both profiles showed increase in BD in Btf, reaching 1.7g cm<sup>-3</sup>, while PR was higher in P2 (1.5 MPa). There are potentialities and limitations common to both soil profiles, but P1 has more physical potentialities and more chemical limitations than P2.</p> Juciane Maria Santos Sousa Vieira, Ricardo Espindola Romero, Raul Shiso Toma, Jaedson Claudio Anunciato Mota, Mirian Cristina Gomes Costa ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://revistas.udenar.edu.co/index.php/rfacia/article/view/5424 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Pathologic findings on ruminant enteric clostridial diseases reveal specificities and differences among iota and iota-like toxins https://revistas.udenar.edu.co/index.php/rfacia/article/view/6581 <p>The iota toxin (ITX) is a binary enterotoxin produced as a protoxin by <em>Clostridium perfringens</em> (<em>C. perfringens</em>) type E that is activated by proteolytic enzymes in the small intestine of infected animals. By depolymerization of the actin filaments, ITX causes cytoskeleton disorganization of cells promoting the increase of the cell permeability. Here, we conducted this review aiming to advance the understanding of enteric clostridial diseases caused by <em>C. perfringens</em> toxins and the specificity of ITX in the intestinal mucosa lesions. ITX consists of an enzymatic component (<em>Ia</em>) and a binding component (<em>Ib</em>). We screened the recently published histological findings of the ITX effects and its relationship with intestinal enteric diseases. Histologically, hemorrhagic necrosis and multifocal hemorrhage have been observed in the jejunum-ileum mucosa, the small intestine, and the abomasum. Although the diagnosis is still based on the presence of toxins in the intestinal contents and the clinical and/or histological history, it is important to develop novel enterotoxemic indicators capable of establishing precise methods for differentiate the actions of ITX and other toxins involved in the infectious process of <em>C. perfringens</em> type E.</p> Helio S Brito, Fernando Camargo Alencar, Benedito Albuquerque, Marcos G Silva, Mellanie KC Felix, Daniel S Mulholland, Eugênio E Oliveira, Luis André M Mariúba, Eliane M Sobrinho, Igor V Brandi, Francisco Carlos F Lobato, Alex Sander R Cangussu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://revistas.udenar.edu.co/index.php/rfacia/article/view/6581 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0500