Revista de Ciencias Agrícolas <p align="justify">The Revista de Ciencias Agrícolas is a recognized means of divulgation and distribution of scientific and technological research nationwide and abroad, biannually publishes original articles written in english, on topics related to Agricultural Sciences, which present in detail results of research in agriculture, forestry, agricultural biotechnology and food which are subject to the assessment process by nationals and foreign peers, and to review and approval by the Editorial Committee of the magazine.</p> <p><strong>DOI:</strong>&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> en-US (William Ballesteros Possu) (Leydy Martínez) Thu, 17 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500 OJS 60 Low-temperature applied to rice seed storage: an efficient protection method against fungal contamination <p>Low-temperatures have long been thought to enhance seed health during storage. Here we tested the effect of low-temperature on the mycoflora associated with rice seeds. Seeds of the IRGA 423 and 424 cultivars were stored in refrigeration (8 and -50 °C) or at room temperature (25 ± 10 °C). Following storage (1, 45, and 90 days) was investigated the fungi associated with the seeds. We found that, for both cultivars, low-temperature stored seeds had a lower fungal load than the seeds at room temperature. Besides that, after 90 days of storage occurs a decrease in its incidence rate average of more than 85% in lower temperature. All mycroflora was eliminated at 90 days except for <em>Fusarium sp</em>. The <em>Trichoderma sp.</em> was detected only in IRGA 423 seeds, whereas all other fungi detected were found in both cultivars. In our seed-to-seedlings transmission analyses only <em>Bipolaris</em> sp. was observed in both cultivars at 8°C, when -50°C was not detected. Based on our results, we recommend low-temperature storage of rice seeds.</p> Raimundo Wagner Souza Aguiar, Deyvid Rocha Brito, Vitor L Nascimento, Rodrigo Ribeiro Fidelis, Talita Pereira de Souza Ferreira, Gil Rodrigues Santos ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 04 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation of phosphate solubilization from phosphoric rock via Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp <p>Phosphoric rock is the main source of phosphorus used in fertilizers. In most cases, it is applied alone or mixed with other nutrients in water; however, its low solubility means that it is not used efficiently, causing excess phosphorus to be wasted, generating economic expenses for the farmer or causing problems of eutrophication in water sources. In this article, different mixtures of solubilizing fungi with coffee pulp stillage were studied to improve the solubility of phosphates in phosphate rock. Since despite that in different studies is clear its role in the solubilization of P, its application on floors is still done without any additional treatment. Phosphoric rock samples were obtained from the municipality of Aipe (Huila) and it were treated for 6 weeks with coffee pulp stillage (<em>Coffea arabica</em>) and inoculums of <em>Aspergillus niger</em> and <em>Penicillium sp</em>, pH and temperature controlled.&nbsp; The fungus species were obtained from environmental media on PDA culture, then it was isolated and identified on MEA culture, in according to standard morphologic identification methods.&nbsp; <em>Aspergillus niger</em> showed greater mycelial growth in the stillage and a higher concentration of phosphates dissolved in the aqueous phase (72 ± 31 M) compared to <em>Penicillium sp</em>.&nbsp; The mixture of the two fungi in the treatments allowed to obtain the highest percentage of phosphates (17.8% of the phosphate soluble in H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> 40% v/v).&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Leandro Argotte, Oscar Fernando Barreiro, Néstor Enrique Cerquera, Hans Thielin Castro ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 10 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation of pre-germination treatments in Carapa guianensis AUBL <p>The study of the germination of forest species native to the tropical rainforest is fundamental in the regeneration and conservation of this ecosystem, which has been affected by the exploitation of timber and non-timber products. In this sense Carapa guianensis Aulb. (Meliaceae), has been exploited for its high quality wood and seeds; from which high value medicinal oil is obtained for the pharmaceutical industry. Indiscriminate use has reduced its population, since generating scientific knowledge about its sexual propagation in the nursery is of vital importance. The present investigation had as objective to evaluate the germination of C. guianensis seeds under different pre-germinative treatments and substrates in the C.I El Mira of AGROSAVIA. The pre-germination tests were carried out through a design of divided plots with four repetitions distributed at random. For the processing of the information, the percentage of accumulated germination (PGA) and average germination time (t50) were calculated. The results were analyzed through ANOVA and Tukey comparison tests using the statistical program InfoStat V.2016. Significant differences were obtained in EGP for treatments (p&lt;0.0001) and interactions (p&lt;0.0096); in S1+T4, the highest percentage of germination was reached (61%). T50 did not present significant differences (p=0.24). The research demonstrated that, under the agroclimatic conditions of Tumaco municipality, the scarification treatment with imbibition in the sand substrate provided the highest value in germination.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Pedro Pablo Bacca, Jhon Jairo Zuluaga, José Ives Pérez, Diana Lucía Burbano ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 10 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Physicochemical properties and acceptability of three formulations containing fava bean, quinoa, and corn flour extrudates <p>Andean grains are widely distributed in the high areas of the Andean Highlands and can help reduce malnutrition owing to their high content of protein and balance of essential amino acids. Recently, the consumption of these grains has changed as they are increasingly used for instant food mixtures. However, a good design and formulation are necessary to maintain the nutritional value and sensory characteristics of Andean grains. In this study, we evaluated the physicochemical properties and acceptability of three formulations containing extruded corn (<em>Zea mays</em> L.), fava bean (<em>Vicia faba</em> L.), and quinoa (<em>Chenopodium quinoa </em>Willd) flours. Grain samples were collected from the town center of Choclococha, Acobamba, Huancavelica, Peru and were extruded at 95 °C. Subsequently, three flour formulations were prepared. The formulation comprising 30% fava bean flour, 58% quinoa flour, and 12% corn flour consisted of 18.64% protein, 4.87% fat, 8.4% humidity, 2.99% ash, and 62.44% carbohydrates. This formulation with the highest quinoa flour content presented the highest acceptability in terms of color odor, and flavor, and also the highest protein content and digestibility (72.6%) of all analyzed formulations. Thermal analysis and pasting testing indicated that the formulation with the highest acceptability did not contain native starch; moreover, the proteins in this formulation were denatured.</p> Frank F. Velásquez-Barreto, Edson E. Ramirez-Tixe, Mariana D. Salazar-Irrazabal, Elias Salazar-Silvestre ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 10 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Biofertilizer potential of digestates from small-scale biogas plants in the Cuban context <p>The residual sludge from anaerobic digestion known as digestate has been used as a valuable biofertilizer, but the effect of the substrate, the configuration of the reactor and the operating parameter changes the quality and amounts of nutrients in it. Therefore, it is necessary to know its potential characteristic of fertilizer to apply it correctly in crops of national interest. The aim of this work was to characterize the digestate generated from three biodigester technologies (fixed dome, floating drum and tubular) and three substrates: swine manure, cow manure, and co-digestion of swine and cow manure obtained in the province of Sancti Spíritus, Cuba, in terms of nutrient and matter content. For this purpose, stratified statistical sampling was carried out to ensure representative samples and descriptive statistical techniques were used to process the analyses. The digestate was divided into liquid and solid fractions according to the dry matter content (15%). The content of organic matter and ash represented around 50% for both fractions, which enhances its value as a soil conditioner. The nutrient content of both fractions showed good fertilizing properties, having a nutrient ratio (NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup>:PO<sub>4</sub><sup>3-</sup>:K<sup>+</sup>:SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup>:Mg<sup>2+</sup>:Ca<sup>2+</sup>) in the liquid (0.002:0.80:0.10:1.00:0.89:0.93) and solid (0.0003:0.96:0.002:1.00:0.52:0.50) fractions, that would contribute to the return nutrients to the soil. The quality of the liquid fraction as irrigation water was assessed as good, according to the relationship between the concentration of the nutrients (Ca, Mg, Na and K) and hardness. Further research is needed on the appropriate dosage for the different crops, and its contribution to sustainable agriculture in the Cuban context.</p> Leyanet Odales, Edelbis López, Lisbet Mailin López, Janet Jiménez, Ernesto Luis Barrera ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 10 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Botanical formulations for the ecological management of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and Aphis gossypii (Clover) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and their side effects on parasitoid wasps <p>The aphid <em>Myzus persicae</em> (Sulzer) and <em>Aphis gossypii</em> (Clover) (Hemiptera: Aphidiae) are considered to be the most significant arthropod pests affecting greenhouse pepper crops in Argentina as a result of their frequent presence and the seriousness of the damage caused by feeding on phloem and conveying virus, mainly on horticultural crops. Since the integrated pest management is currently an alternative strategy based on ecological practices, the objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of a variety of botanical products to control aphids in greenhouse pepper crops in Concordia, Argentina. Thus, four bio-rational pest control formulations were tested, namely: (1) neem essential oil (EO), cinnamon EO, clove EO and oregano EO and copete EO (Formulation 1); (2) garlic EO and cinnamon EO (Formulation 2); (3) garlic PE and ruda PE (Formulation 3); 4) adjuvant lecithin soybean and, finally, (4) control (water spray method). For this research, the distribution pattern of plants was carried out according to a completely randomized design replicated 3 times. The variety of treatments was applied by means of a backpack sprayer straight to the foliage on a weekly basis until the end of this trial. Subsequently, the total average number of aphids on every leaf was recorded. The results showed that the treatment with Formulation 1 and Formulation 3 recorded a lower number of aphids compared to the other treatments. However, the highest number of parasitized aphids (mummies) was found on leaves treated with water and lecithin.</p> Jorge Eduardo Castresana, Laura Elena Puhl ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 10 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Insectıcıdal actıvıtıes of anethum graveolens and ıllıcıum verum essentıal oıls agaınst sıtophılus zeamaıs <p>Inappropriate use of synthetic insecticides in pest management programmes contribute in ozone depletion, neurotoxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, mutagenesis and resistance. These negative outcomes have diverted attention towards the use of plant products in insect’s population management. In this present study, dill (<em>Anethum graveolens</em>) and star anise (<em>Ilicium verum</em>) essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation method using clevenger apparatus, and evaluated for repellent, toxic and oviposition inhibitory potential against maize weevil <em>Sitophilus zeamais</em> (Coleoptera: Curculionida) by fumigation and contact methods. In toxicity assay by fumigation method, median lethal concentrations (LC<sub>50</sub>) recorded were 0.316 and 0.243 μL/cm<sup>3 </sup>air; 0.362 and 0.284 μL/cm<sup>3</sup>; and 0.497 and 0.418 μL/cm<sup>3</sup> of <em>A. graveolens</em> and <em>I. verum</em> oils and pure limonene after 24 and 48 h exposure to <em>S. zeamais</em> adults, respectively. In contact toxicity assay, LC<sub>50</sub> were 0.219 and 0.159 μL/cm<sup>2</sup> area; 0.269 and 0.226 μL/cm<sup>2</sup>; and 0.567 and 0.386 μL/cm<sup>2</sup> of <em>A. graveolens</em> and <em>I. verum</em> oils and pure limonene after 24 and 48 h exposure to <em>S. zeamais</em> adults, respectively. Both oils and limonene reduced progeny production and AChE activity in <em>S. zeamais</em> adults when fumigated with sub-lethal concentration of essential oils and limonene. The outcomes of this study will help in preparation of essential oil based formulations for stored grain insect pest management.</p> Mukesh Kumar Chaubey ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 10 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Quality parameters of pink pepper seeds as sustainability indicators <p>The improper management and commercialization of the pink pepper (<em>Schinus terebinthifolius</em> Raddi) carried out by the extractivists of a rural settlement located in São Pedro D'Aldeia - RJ drew the attention of local governments to the adoption of measures that favor the organization of the production chain. ; income generation; training of rural producers and the elaboration of the first Simplified Forest Management Plan of the state to authorize sustainable management of the species. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the quality parameters of pink pepper as indicators of sustainability. For this, moisture content, purity, sieve uniformity and weight of one thousand seeds were determined in samples obtained from three different lots. The germination test was only performed for the samples from lot 3. The results show that the high moisture content of the seeds (22.99% on average) has a negative effect on their quality, providing the action of deteriorating organisms; The purity was satisfactory (97.1% on average). The seeds of lot 1 have larger size and uniformity when compared to the seeds of lots 2 and 3. Only lot 1 presented the weight of one thousand seeds compatible with that required by MAPA. Germination rate was 72% and did not vary among seeds of different sizes. Extractive activity in the settlement is moving towards sustainability and can be improved by incorporating good collection, processing and storage practices.</p> Aline Nahanna Rodrigues, Gilmara Palermo, Madelon Braz, Böer Breier Tiago ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 10 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0500