Revista de Ciencias Agrícolas <p align="justify">The Revista de Ciencias Agrícolas is a recognized means of divulgation and distribution of scientific and technological research nationwide and abroad, biannually publishes original articles written in english, on topics related to Agricultural Sciences, which present in detail results of research in agriculture, forestry, agricultural biotechnology and food which are subject to the assessment process by nationals and foreign peers, and to review and approval by the Editorial Committee of the magazine.</p> <p><strong>DOI:</strong>&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> en-US (Tulio César Lagos Burbano) (Leydy Martínez) Wed, 16 Oct 2019 00:00:00 -0500 OJS 60 Black twig borer, Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff), as a potential threat to the coffee production <p>In robusta coffee,<em> Coffea canephora</em>, the black twig borer <em>Xylosandrus compactus</em> (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) causes considerable damage. Although this has been reported in many crops for years in Brazil, recently, the injury caused by <em>X. compactus</em> in coffee has been ignored. This present study aimed to report the current status of <em>X. compactus</em> in Brazil, and to investigate its attack frequency in different robusta coffee genotypes. In this study, we reported the occurrence of <em>X. compactus</em> in robusta coffee plants in the state of Rondônia for the first time. We also evaluated the occurrence of this pest in different robusta coffee genotypes in the state of Espírito Santo. In all plants, the plagiotropic branches were attacked; however, the genotypes G2, G6, G8, G20, G48, G50, G51 and G52 showed a high number of attacked plagiotropic branches, whereas the genotypes G24 and G41 showed a low attack frequency. Thus, these can be promising candidates for pest resistance studies. Moreover, it was reported that <em>Almeidea rubra</em>, <em>Alseis floribunda</em>, <em>Plinia grandifolia</em> and<em> Casearia Sylvestris</em> can serve as hosts of <em>X. compactus</em>. Thus, our findings suggest that <em>X. compactus</em> is a threat to coffee production, and that future studies are necessary to find appropriate tools for its management.</p> Amanda C. Túler, Wilson R. Valbon, Hígor S. Rodrigues, Luína R. Noia, Lucas M. L. Santos, Isac Fogaça, Vando M. Rondelli, Abraão C. Verdin Filho ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 16 Oct 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Hystometric evaluation of nickel chronic exposure effects on large instestine of adult Wistar male rats <p>The ingestion of considerable amounts of water or food contaminated with nickel can be very toxic. The present work was conducted aiming to evaluate the effects of nickel exposures on ascending colon of adult Wistar male rats at hystometric level. We used 12 animals that were divided in a control (ingested uncontaminated water) and a nickel-contaminated (i.e., 25 mg de nickel/L of water) groups. Nickel chloride was offered in declorinated water and the experiment had a 56 days exposure period. A portion of the ascending colon was removed of the animals and subjected to hystological labelling processes using blue toluidin (for general hystometric description), Alcian Blue (AB, for acid mucins) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) technique (for neutral mucins). The potential differences between groups were desgined by applying the Whitney test and <em>t </em>test (p &lt; 0.05). The crypts were smaller for the nickel-contaminated group, even though these organism exhibited broader and higher crypts. Nickel-contaminated animals exhibited a smaller amount of calyceform cells with AB and PAS positive reactions as well as a less mucus quantities when compared with nickel-uncontaminated animals. Such reductions on the amount of calyceform cells with AB and PAS positive reactions may be related wiht the shallower crypts, which possibly reduced the synthesis and secretion of mucins, compromissing the functional aspects (e.g., lubrification and intestinal mucosa protection) of the nickel-contaminated large intestines. Interestingly, the wider and higher crypts and higher epithelium collumn on the nickel-contaminated animals may represent a relevant trade-off for the intestinal mucosa protection.</p> Maria Luiza Assis Rodrigues, Sirlene Souza Rodrigues Sartori, Priscila Izabel Santos Totaro, Sérgio Luis Pinto da Matta ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 16 Oct 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Effects of Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) essential oils on the honey bees, Apis mellifera (Apidae: Hymenoptera), foraging <p>The use of plant essential oils has been adopted as less hazardous to the environment and human health than synthetic insecticides used for the control of insects that transmit diseases. Despite of exerting insecticidal activities against several insect disease vectors, the potential impacts on non-target organisms exerted by essential oils extracted from <em>Lippia</em> <em>sidoides</em> (Cham.) have not received adequate attention. Here, we evaluated the susceptibility and potential changes in consumption rates of honey bees, <em>Apis mellifera</em> (L.), when exposed to essential oils extracted from <em>L.</em> <em>sidoides</em>. Was exposed forager bees to honey syrup (50% v/v) containing <em>L.</em> <em>sidoides</em> essential oil for 5 h. After this exposure period, the bees received regular honey syrup for another 19 h period. Six essential oil concentrations was used, namely 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5 µL of essential oil/mL of syrup, and evaluated the syrup consumption and bees mortality in both periods (at the 5<sup>th</sup> and 24<sup>th</sup> h). The results reveal that independent of the essential oil concentration, the forager bees fed significantly less on <em>L.</em> <em>sidoides</em> essential oil-containing honey syrup. However, feeding on <em>L.</em> <em>sidoides</em> essential oil-containing honey syrup did not cause significant mortality when compared with bees that were not exposed to the essential oils. Thus, the results demonstrate that <em>L.</em> <em>sidoides</em> essential oils exhibited adequate selectivity against honey bees.</p> Izabella M. C. Pinheiro, João Henrique S. Luz, Luis Flávio N. Souza, Ana Cláudia Oliveira, Eugênio E. Oliveira, Raimundo Wagner Aguiar, Gil R. Santos, Talita P. Ferreira, Marcela Cristina Silveira-Tschoeke, Paulo Henrique Tschoeke ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 16 Oct 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Potential of diatomaceous earth as a management tool against Acanthoscelides obtectus infestations <p>The weevil <em>Acanthoscelides obtectus</em> (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) is a cosmopolitan pest that causes high losses in stored beans in small storage units and especially on-farm storages. Here, it was tested the efficacy of the inert dust diatomaceous earth (DE) as an alternative to control <em>A. obtectus</em> in common beans (i.e., <em>Phaseolus vulgaris </em>L<em>.</em>) on different storage temperatures and exposure intervals. Using a Completely Randomized design four doses (0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00g kg<sup>-1</sup>) of diatomaceous earth on beans kept at different temperatures (25, 28, 30, 32 and 35°C). Insect mortality was evaluated after two or five days of exposure. The impacts of diatomaceous earth in the offspring of five days-exposed <em>A. obtectus </em>adults were evaluated. The offspring production (emerged adults) was evaluated 60 days after the exposure. The results revealed that <em>A. obtectus</em> mortality caused by diatomaceous earth was dose, temperature and exposure period dependent. For instance, at the lowest temperature (25°C), diatomaceous earth dose (0.25g kg<sup>-1</sup> of beans) and exposure period of two days, the efficacy of diatomaceous earth was significantly reduced when compared to the other treatments. When applied at temperatures above 30°C, the diatomaceous earth treatments always resulted in <em>A. obtectus</em> mortality of at least 90%. Curiously, offspring production (F1) was reduced to over 95% in all diatomaceous earth, temperatures and exposure period treatments. Therefore, the results demonstrated that diatomaceous earth has the potential to be used as a tool to manage <em>A. obtectus</em> infestations in stored beans, considering that such control practice adequately reduced these insect infestations in several possible scenarios.</p> Luis Viteri Jumbo, Marco Pimentel, Eugênio E. Oliveira, Pedro Toledo, Lêda Rita D'Antonino Faroni ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 16 Oct 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Apprehension of illegal pesticides, agricultural productivity and food poisoning on the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul <p>The application of agrochemicals plays a key role in the world's food and agricultural products supply. Brazil, as one of the most relevant agricultural global players is highly dependent on the application of such products, which surely attracted not only companies that licitly commercialized the pesticides but also the so termed pesticide smugglers. Here, we conducted a retrospective survey (i.e., from 2010 to 2017) regarding the apprehension of illegal products, agricultural productivity and food poisoning in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS). The statistical data were obtained by official agencies Such as Technical-Scientific Sector of the Federal Police Department of the MS State, The System of Control of Seized Goods, The National Toxic-Pharmacological Information System and The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, and by the non-official National Union of the Product Industry for Plant Protection agency. The results indicated that in 2011 the MS state had the largest number of seizures of illegal pesticides compared to other years. In addition, from 2010 to 2013, the state was among the regions with the highest number of seizures. In the same period, the agricultural productivity of the cotton, sugarcane, corn and soybean crops was lower compared to the other years. Regarding the food poisoning, the percentage of human intoxication by agrochemicals for agricultural use was low compared to all cases of intoxication by various toxic agents. It was concluded that the state MS presented a large amount of seizure of illegal pesticides.</p> Graziela Sant’ana, Sabrina Araújo, Jardel L. Pereira, Eugenio E. Oliveira ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 16 Oct 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Growth performance of Astyanax altiparanae fed with plant and/or animal lipid sources <p>The lambari, <em>Astyanax altiparanae</em>, exhibits a great potential for aquaculture due to its omnivory, rapid growth and ease captive production. Despite of fish lipid metabolism being directly related to the dietary lipid consumed, which may lead to changes in fish growth, nothing much have been established regarding the lipid sources that can be applied in <em>A. altiparanae </em>captive production. Thus, this present research was conducted aiming to evaluate the growth performance and whole body composition of <em>A. altiparanae</em> fed with lipid sources of plant and/or animal origins. Were used a Completely Randomized design experiment with five treatments.&nbsp; The treatments consisted of isoproteic and isoenergetic diets, containing the following lipid sources: <em>T1</em>: linseed, chia and sunflower oils; <em>T2</em>: linseed and corn oils; <em>T3</em>: linseed, chia, corn and sunflower oils; <em>T4</em>: sunflower, corn and fish oils; <em>T5</em>: linseed, chia, sunflower, corn oils and bovine fat. Each treatment was replicated six times, where the experimental units consists of 10 fishes (averaged weight:&nbsp; 4.0 + 0.5 g) placed in an aquarium containing 80L of dechlorinated water. Were compared the growth performance parameters among the treatments by applying an one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at 5% significance (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.05). The results revealed that both growth performance and whole body composition of <em>A. altiparanae</em> were not affected by the lipid source, which indicate that these fishes can efficiently use both vegetable lipid sources as well as mixtures of vegetable and animal lipid sources without any growth disadvantages.</p> William Chaves, Érica C. Almeida, Cristiana Carneiro, Larisa Magnone, Nilton Martins, Martin Bessonart, Jener Zuanon, Ana Salaro ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 16 Oct 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Effects of imidacloprid-sodium chloride association on survival and reproduction of the stink bug Podisus nigrispinus <p>Pesticide effects on natural enemies in an agroecosystem are of paramount importance for integrated pest management programs. Natural enemies can be subject to direct and indirect exposure to insecticides and synergistic molecules (e.g., sodium chloride - NaCl) which are used to control various pests of agricultural crops such as soybean. Here, we evaluated the potential effects of imidacloprid and its interaction with NaCl as an enhancer on the survival and reproductive abilities of the non-target predator <em>Podisus nigrispinus</em> (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). The insects were exposed to the stink bugs control field recommended dose of imidacloprid associated or not with the salt at the concentration of 0.5% (w/v). NaCl as a pesticide enhancer did not affect&nbsp; the survival of&nbsp; <em>P. nigrispinus</em> adults after 48 h of exposure (less than 12% of mortality was always recorded). However, the fifth instar nymph mortality was almost 50%. The effects of imidacloprid on the reproductive parameters of <em>P. nigrispinus</em> included a decrease in the oviposition, showing fewer eggs per day. However, the fertility was not affected. The NaCl addition, therefore, had no effect on the mortality, survival, and reproduction of the non-target predator. The use of NaCl associated to imidacloprid and other pesticides in the presence of <em>P. nigrispinus </em>demonstrated compatibility, however, it requires further evaluation to endorse the set of these pest control strategies.</p> Gabryele Silva Ramos, Paula Daiana De Paulo, Pedro F. S. Toledo, Khalid Haddi, Jose Cola Zanuncio, Eugenio E. Oliveira ##submission.copyrightStatement## Universidad de Nariño Wed, 16 Oct 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Chronic effects of fire suppressors on the reproduction of the copepod Nitocra sp. <p>Fire suppressors are widely used in firefighting and their chemical composition may present a mixture of perfluorochlorinated surfactants (PFCs), including the perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) which has been internationally banned due to its classification as a persistent organic pollutant (POP). PFCs have been found in environmental matrices and soft tissues of organisms, but the potential effect of such compounds on marine organisms has been overlooked. Here, it was evaluated whether the chronic exposures (i.e., seven days) to the fire suppressors Ageofoam, Cold Fire, Kidde and Argus could affect the reproduction of the copepod <em>Nitocra</em> sp. The tested concentrations consisted of those recommended on the products’ manuals and those ranging between 0.0001% and 1%. For each compound, the effective concentrations to 50% exposed organisms (EC<sub>50</sub>) and the lowest observed effect concentrations (LOEC) were estimated. All the fire suppressors exhibited high toxicity, causing fecundity reduction. At the recommended dilutions, 100% lethality occurred for all compounds. The EC<sub>50</sub> values ranged from 0.00817% - Ageofoam - to 0.03081% - Argus. The LOECs ranged from 0.001% - Ageofoam - to 0.1% - Argus and Kidde; and were much lower than the concentrations recommended for commercial use. The fire suppressors showed high toxicity to the copepod, reducing the reproduction rates, even in very low concentrations, suggesting that the release of such substances in the estuary caused severe effects to the environment. This assessment provides subsides to the environmental regulation of fire suppressors in Brazil, because these compounds do not have national regulations for their use and disposal.</p> Maysa Ueda-De-Carvalho, Lucas Buruaem-Moreira, Luciane Maranho-Alves, Denis Moledo-de-Souza-Abessa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Universidad de Nariño Wed, 16 Oct 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Genetic diversity of 40 genotypes of cape gooseberry Physalis peruviana L. using microsatellite markers <p><em>Physalis peruviana</em> L., also called cape gooseberry, is widely known for its nutraceutical and economic importance. However, little is known about the genetic diversity of this species at the molecular level, mainly due to its status as an orphan species. Therefore, knowledge of the genetic diversity of germplasm collections of <em>P. peruviana</em> will allow determining the level of genetic variability that is available to breeders for selection processes. This study assessed the genetic variation present in 40 cape gooseberry genotypes using six SRR (simple sequence repeats) molecular markers selected based on their high polymorphism in <em>P. peruviana</em> L. The collection was divided into three populations: DH (double haploid lines), FT (<em>Fusarium oxysporum</em>-tolerant genotype), and UDENAR (Universidad de Nariño). We detected 7.33 alleles using GenAlex v. 6.5 and Arlequin 3.5.2 software. Among the six markers used, SSR15 and SSR138 were the most informative. Together, these markers indicated that 22.2% of loci were polymorphic with an average expected heterozygosity of 0.09, which is considered low. The AMOVA showed that the variance within genotypes contributes to 100% of the total variance, indicating the absence of population structure. Overall, we conclude that the level of variability among genotypes is low.</p> Nataly Delgado-Bastidas, Liz K Lagos-Santander, Tulio César Lagos-Burbano ##submission.copyrightStatement## Universidad de Nariño Wed, 16 Oct 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Carbon storage potential of windbreaks in the United States <p>In the United States of America, agriculture is performed on large farms of monocultures, affecting ecosystems and making a great contribution to climate change. The carbon storage potential for twelve field windbreak designs containing one-, two- and three-rows and nine farmstead windbreaks encompassing three- to ten-rows of mixed tree species were analyzed in nine regions: Northern Lake States (NLS), Corn Belt (CB), Southern Plains (SP), Delta States (DS), Appalachia (AP), Rocky Mountains North (RMN), Rocky Mountains South (RMS), North East (NE), y Northern Plains (NP), using the US Forest Inventory and Analysis database and allometric equations. &nbsp;Carbon storage potentials for different field windbreak designs across regions ranged from 0.3 Mg C km<sup>-1</sup> yr<sup>-1</sup> for a single-row small-conifer windbreak in the Northeast region to 5.8 Mg C km<sup>-1</sup> yr<sup>-1</sup> for a three-row tall-deciduous windbreak in the Appalachia region.&nbsp; Carbon storage potentials for farmstead windbreaks ranged from 0.8 Mg C 300 m<sup>-1</sup> yr<sup>-1 </sup>for a three-row of mixed tree species windbreak in the Rocky Mountain North to 12.7 Mg C 300<sup>-1</sup> yr<sup>-1</sup> for a ten-row of mixed tree species windbreak in Delta States region.</p> William Ballesteros Possú, James R. Brandle, Héctor Ramiro Ordóñez ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 16 Oct 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Initial growth of coffee (Coffea arabica L. var) castillo in the coffee zone of Nariño <p>The importance of coffee cultivation in Nariño is reflected in the fact that 64% of its municipalities grow coffee. The ruggedness of its Andean topography provides great diversity in terms of climatic conditions, which, in one way or another, affect the behavior of coffee in all its physiological processes. Therefore, this study sought to identify the variation in the growth processes and production processes in the different coffee areas of this department, including the coffee-growing municipalities Sandoná, Consacá, La Florida and La Unión in the Department of Nariño, using experimental lots located at different altitude ranges (B &lt;1600msnm; M between 1600 and 1800msnm and A &gt;1800msnm). The statistical design used for each municipality was Random Complete Blocks with three treatments and sixteen repetitions. The recorded climatic variables included photosynthetically active radiation, ambient temperature, precipitation and relative humidity, and the evaluated physiological variables were plant height, number of leaves, basal stem diameter, number of primary branches, number of secondary branches, length of primary branches, number of knots per branch and leaf area index. The variable plant height was statistically higher in the upper zone (A) in the municipalities La Florida (79.95 cm) and Consacá (64.31cm); in La Florida, the number of branches and the LAI were higher in the upper zone plants, while the diameter of the stems was higher in the middle zone. In the other municipalities, these variables were not affected by the altitude.</p> Hernando Criollo E., Johanna Muñoz B., Jorge Checa B., Wilmer Noguera R. ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 16 Oct 2019 00:00:00 -0500