Teoría de la complejidad y aplicaciones a la administración: principios sobre la coherencia y la fluidez de sistemas operativos en las empresas

  • Giovanni Reyes Universidad del Rosario
Palabras clave: teoría de la complejidad, dirección empresarial, flujo de operaciones logísticas

Resumen

El objetivo fundamental de artículo es discutir la importancia y puesta en práctica de mecanismos operativos relacionados con: (i) coherencia en la dirección de política empresarial; y (ii) de mantenimiento de los flujos de operaciones dentro de las organizaciones o empresas. Se abordan inicialmente aspectos esenciales de la teoría de la complejidad. A partir de ellos se determinan directrices para operativizar los principios y prácticas antes referidos. La teoría de la complejidad puede brindar elementos muy valiosos para la planeación, organización, dotación de recursos, operativización y control de las actividades de empresas o unidades de producción.

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Biografía del autor/a

Giovanni Reyes, Universidad del Rosario

Ph.D. Economics of Development and International Relations from the University of Pittsburgh, with graduated certificates from the University of Pennsylvania and Harvard in the USA; and from the School of High Commercial Studies (HEC) Paris, France. He has been Fulbright and World Bank Scholar. Dr. Reyes has been Director of the Latin-American Economic System; he has worked for the United Nations Organization at UNICEF, United Nations Development Program (PNUD) the International Coffee Organization (ICO) at its headquarters in London, and the Vienna International Center in Austria. He has been Director of the Human Development Report Program in Venezuela; and twice, Dean of the School of Economics at the Catholic University of Colombia; currently Dr. Reyes is Associate Professor at the University Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora Del Rosario. All rights reserved © Giovanni E. Reyes 2013; todos los derechos reservados © Giovanni E. Reyes, 2013; tous droits réservés © Giovanni E. Reyes, 2013.

Several theoretical approaches have been written in reference to complexity as the main level or category, which include, from an epistemological perspective, structural thought and systemic approaches. This last category in turn includes endogenous factors and exogenous elements as well; more discussion, Wilson 2003; Goldberger, 1996; and Varela, 1991.

In terms of ecological issues it is necessary to point out damage for ecosystems. One of the most remarkable condition is the fiscal penalty mechanism for negative externalities. A key component here is the ownership of resources and the fact that natural resources can be of a renewable or non-renewable nature. Renewable resources are appropriated ones more likely or easily object of fiscal penalty; more conceptual elements in Waldrop, 1992; Pollak, 2007; Malloch, 2007 and Cooke, 2007.

Based on these considerations, one can conclude that the problem of ecological sustainability beyond ideological considerations is a problem of the survival of human society, which must control excessive consumerism and the society “disposable culture”. While annually go to waste a total of 1,300 million tons of food, according to statistics from the most developed countries, equivalent to the production of cereals Saharan countries or one-third of all food occur- about 1,200 million of people endure chronically lack of food; see the organizational documents of the United Nations Fund for Food and Agriculture (FAO) (http://www.fao.org/docrep/016/i2697s / i2697s.pdf ).

This dynamic scenario can usually be presented as one of “static equilibrium”. Normally it manifests in terms of formal hierarchies, but also based on informal groups that despite their nature, can have significant influence on functions and organization of companies. See: Bourne, 2007, Briggs, 1992, and Stich, 1990.

Here it should be considered three sets of issues: (i) goals or outcomes, which may include effects or externalities either positive or negative, (ii) factors, components of causality or vector axis and (iii) assumptions. It is considered here that both, administration and economy, while having scientific features, are also political exercises and practices. In enterprises one can realize of a confluence or convergence of business management, microeconomics, and industrial engineering disciplines, see Portes, 2007; Restrepo and Rivera, 2008, and Todaro, 2005.

These aspects are mostly related to the macroeconomic level. Political viability for neoliberal measures was reinforced by the pressure of interest groups associated with large corporations. In that way it strengthened the promotion and establishment of economies based on financial links, which take resources from the real economy, thus reducing the capacity to produce goods, services and employment. It came also to dismantle the capacity of welfare states and thus leverage social nets or social supports for the most vulnerable sectors; further discussion of theories concerning economics of development in Todaro, 2005.

Three works would be useful in this regard. The first two of the same author: Watson, Peter (2011) Historia de las Ideas. (Bogotá, Colombia: Taurus) Watson, Peter (2010) Historia Intelectual del Siglo XX. (Bogotá, Colombia: Taurus). The other work is Barzun, Jacques (2008) From Dawn to Decadence. (New York: Harper Collins). They show historical accounts of the influence of the Enlightenment as the culmination of Renaissance revivalism that comes to the sciences and the French Revolution. One of the most notable achievements is the Encyclopedia. It is the substitution of teo-centric approach for belief in science, the art, the effort and that work can constitute a set of effective means for solving problems. In general terms, that influence did not affect Spain. Barzun, for example in chapter 8 of his book, devotes a extensive discussion of the strategic positioning of Venice as a key city of the eighteenth century.

Three works would be useful in this regard. The first two of the same author: Watson, Peter (2011) Historia de las Ideas. (Bogotá, Colombia: Taurus) Watson, Peter (2010) Historia Intelectual del Siglo XX. (Bogotá, Colombia: Taurus). The other work is Barzun, Jacques (2008) From Dawn to Decadence. (New York: Harper Collins). They show historical accounts of the influence of the Enlightenment as the culmination of Renaissance revivalism that comes to the sciences and the French Revolution. One of the most notable achievements is the Encyclopedia. It is the substitution of teo-centric approach for belief in science, the art, the effort and that work can constitute a set of effective means for solving problems. In general terms, that influence did not affect Spain. Barzun, for example in chapter 8 of his book, devotes a extensive discussion of the strategic positioning of Venice as a key city of the eighteenth century.

According to George Odiorne, cited by Koontz & Weihrich (2012: 502) recommendations regarding the maximum effectiveness of human resources are: (i) establishing in a clear way, aims and objectives; (ii) articulated perspective and formulation of tasks and long term objectives, keeping up with motivation; (iii) constant learning processes; (iv) achieving better levels of company´s performance; (v) use of full capacities based on last generation technology; (vi) allow influences of positive feedback

 

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Publicado
2013-08-01
Cómo citar
Reyes, G. (2013). Teoría de la complejidad y aplicaciones a la administración: principios sobre la coherencia y la fluidez de sistemas operativos en las empresas. Tendencias, 14(1), 90-101. Recuperado a partir de https://revistas.udenar.edu.co/index.php/rtend/article/view/978