Development and validation of environmental friendly method for determination of heavy metals in pastures

Keywords: Cadmium, digestion, extraction, lead, ultrasound.

Abstract

Heavy metals are dangerous for living beings and environment,  because they cannot be degraded or destroyed. They can reach human beings through the food chain; therefore, their determination in different matrices for human and animal consumption is very important. The method currently used for their extraction is by ash, which entails long processing times and high energy consumption. For this reason, in this study, an environmental friendly method, for digestion and extraction Cd+2 and Pb+2, in pastures, was developed and validated; using ultrasound and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Different variables that affect the digestion were evaluated, such as position on the ultrasound, sample weight, solvent, solvent volume, sonication time and type of container, in samples of pastures doped with metals, using recovery rate as a response variable. The conditions for digestion and extraction of Cd+2 an Pb+2 were: 0.50g of grass in 3.00mL of aqua regia (HCl:HNO3-3:1) exposed for 60min to ultrasound in conical glass tubes. The proposed procedure showed a linear behavior in the range of 0.50 to 8.00 mg/Kg, with 0.9968 and 0.9999 of R2 for Cd+2 and P+2b respectively. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.25 - 0.43 mg/Kg for Cd+2 and 0.22 - 0.37 mg/Kg for Pb+2. The proposed methodology was compared with the conventional technique, and this method allowed determining trace levels of these toxic metals in a forage sample from Magdalena region, with recoveries of 97.54% and 98.62%, respectively.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

ALEIXO, P.C.; SANTOS, J. D.; TOMAZELLI, A.C.; RUFFINI,I.A.; BERNDT, H. D; RUG, F.J. 2004. Cadmium and lead determination in foods by beam injection flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after ultrasoundassisted sample preparation. Anal. Chim. Acta. 512:329 - 337. doi: org/10.1016/j.aca.2004.02.049.

ARAIN, M.B.; KAZI ,T.G.; JAMALI, M.K.; JALBANI, N.;AFRIDI, H.I.; SARFRAZ, R.A.; SHAH, A.Q. 2007. Determination of toxic elements in muscle tissues of five fish species using ultrasound‐assisted pseudodigestion by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry:optimization study. Spectrosc. Lett. 40:861 - 878. doi:10.1080/00387010701521868.

BAKKALI, K.; RAMOS, M. N.; SOUHAIL, B.; BALLESTEROS,E. 2009. Characterization of trace metals in vegetables by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after closed vessel microwave digestion. Food Chem. 116:590 - 594. doi: org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.03.010

BONANNO, G; BORG, J.A; DI MARTINO, V. 2017. Levels of heavy metals in wetland and marine vascular plants and their biomonitoring potential: A comparative assessment. Sc. of The Total Env. 576:796-806. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.10.171.

BRUNORI, C.; IPOLYI, I.; MACALUSO, L.; MORABITO R. 2004. Evaluation of an ultrasonic digestion procedure for total metal determination in sediment reference materials. Anal. Chim. Acta. 510:101 - 107. doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2003.12.049.

CESPÓN, R.; YEBRA, B, Y. 2008. Determination of trace metals in urine with an on-line ultrasound-assisted digestion system combined with a flow-injection preconcentration manifold coupled to flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Anal. Chim. Acta. 609:184 - 191. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2008.01.002.

COBB, G.; SANDS, K.; WATERS, M.; WIXSON, M.;DORWARD, K, E. 2000. Accumulation of heavy metals by vegetables grown in mine wastes. Environ. Toxicol.Chem. 19:600 - 607. doi: 10.1002/etc.5620190311.

DUONG, T.; BYEONG, K. L. 2011. Determining contamination level of heavy metals in road dust from busy traffic areas with different characteristics. J. Environ. Manage. 92:554 - 562. doi: org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.09.010.

ELIK, A. 2005. Ultrasound assisted pseudo-digestion of street dust samples prior to determination by atomic absorption spectrometry. Talanta. 66:882 - 888. doi:org/10.1016/j.talanta.2004.12.050.

FERRÉ, H. N.; SCHUHMACHER, M.; LLOBET, J.; DOMINGO, J. 2007. Metales pesados y salud. Mapfreguridad. 108:50 - 58.

FIGUEIRAS, A.V.; LAVILLA, I.; BENDICHO C. 2001. Ultrasound-assisted solubilization of trace and minor metals from plant tissue using ethylenediaminetetraaceticacid in alkaline medium. Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 369:451 - 456. doi: 10.1007/s002160000648.

JAMALI, M.K.; KAZI, T.G.; ARAIN, M.B.; AFRIDI, H.I.;JALBANI, N.; MEMON, A. 2007. Heavy metal contents of vegetables grown in soil, irrigated with mixtures of wastewater and sewage sludge in pakistan, using ultrasonic- assisted pseudo-digestion. J. Agron. Crop Sci.193:218 - 228. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-037X.2007.00261.x.

KABATA, P. A. 2011. Trace elements in soils and plants. 4a. ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 505p.

KANTHALE P, M.; GOGATE, PR.; PANDIT, A.B.; WILHELM, A.M. 2003. Mapping of an ultrasonic horn: link primary and secondary effects of ultrasound. Ultrason. Sonochem. 10:331 – 335. doi: 10.1016/S1350-4177(03)00104-4.

KAZI, T.; JAMALI, M.; ARAIN, M; AFRIDI, H.; JALBANI, N.;SARFRAZ, R.; ANSARI R. 2009. Evaluation of an ultrasonic acid digestion procedure for total heavy metals determination in environmental and biological samples. J. Hazard. Mater. 161: 1391 - 1398. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.04.103.

KRISHNA, M.V.B.; ARUNACHALAM, J. 2004. Ultrasoundassisted extraction procedure for the fast estimation of major, minor and trace elements in lichen and mussel samples by ICP-MS and ICP-AES. Anal. Chim. Acta. 522:179 - 187. doi: org/10.1016/j.aca.2004.07.006.

MANUTSEWEE, N.; AEUNGMAITREPIROM, W.; VARANUSUPAKUL, P.; IMYIM A.F. 2007. Determination of Cd, Cu, and Zn in fish and mussel by AAS after ultrasound-assisted acid leaching extraction. Food Chem.101:817- 824. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.12.033.

MEREY, R.; MASRI, M.; BOZOU, R. 2002. Cold ultrasonic acid extraction of copper, lead and zinc from soil samples. Anal. Chim. Acta, 452:143 - 148. doi:10.1016/S0003-2670(01)01431-3.

MILLER, J.; MILLER, J. 2000. Estadística y quimiometría para química analítica. Cuarta Edición. Prentice Hall, Madrid. 271 p.

MINKINA, T.; MANDZHIEVA, S.; CHAPLYGIN, V.; BAUER, T.; BURACHEVSKAYA, M.; NEVIDOMSKAYA, D.; SUSHKOVA, S.; ZAMULINA, I. 2016. Content and distribution of heavy metals in herbaceous plants under the effect of industrial aerosol emissions. Journal of Geochemical Exploration. doi: dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gexplo.2016.05.011.

MIRANDA, D.; CARRANZA, C., ROJAS, C.; JEREZ, C.; FISCHER, G.; ZURITA, J. 2008. Acumulación de metales pesados en suelo y plantas de cuatro cultivos hortícolas, regados con agua del río Bogotá. Rev. Colomb. Cienc. Hortic. 2:180 - 19. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.17584/rcch.2008v2i2.1186.

MOLLON, L.C; NORTON, G.J; TRAKAL, L; MORENOJIMENEZ, E; ELOUALI, F.Z; HOUGH, R.L; BEESLEY, L. 2016. Mobility and toxicity of heavy metal(loid)s arising from contaminated wood ash application to a pasture grassland soil. Env Pollution. 218:419-427. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2016.07.021.

NASCENTES, C.; KORN, M.; ARRUDA, M. 2001. A fast ultrasound-assisted extraction of Ca, Mg, Mn and Zn from vegetables. Microchem. J. 69:37 - 43. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0026-265X(00)00192-2.

NAVARRO, J.; AGUILAR, I.; LÓPEZ, M. J. 2007. Aspectos bioquímicos y genéticos de la tolerancia y acumulación de metales pesados en plantas. Ecosistemas. 16(2):10 - 25.

NEGRONI, M. 2009. Microbiología Estomatológica. Fundamentos y guía práctica. Segunda Edición. Editorial Médica Panamericana, México D.C. 656 p.

PRIEGO, C. F.; LUQUE DE CASTRO, M. 2007A. Ultrasoundassisted digestion: A useful alternative in sample preparation. J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods. 70:299 - 310. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbbm.2006.09.006.

PRIEGO, C. F.; LUQUE DE CASTRO, M. 2007B. Ultrasound in analytical chemistry. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 387:249 - 257. doi: 10.1007/s00216-006-0966-4.

PRIETO, J.; GONZÁLEZ, C.; ROMÁN, A.; PRIETO, F. 2009. Contaminación y fitotoxicidad en plantas por metales pesados provenientes de suelos y agua. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 10:29 - 44.

RASCIO, N.; NAVARI, I. F. 2011. Heavy metal hyperaccumulating plants: How and why do they do it? And what makes them so interesting?. Plant Sci. 180:169 – 181. doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2010.08.016.

RUIZ, J.; LUQUE, J.L.y LUQUE DE CASTRO, M.D. 2003. Dynamic ultrasound-assisted extraction of cadmium and lead from plants prior to electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Anal. Chim. Acta. 480:231 - 237. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(02)01658-6.

SOYLAK, M.; TUZEN, M.; SANTOS, A.; ANDRADE, M.G.; COSTA, S.L. 2007. Optimization of microwave assisted digestion procedure for the determination of zinc, copper and nickel in tea samples employing flame atomic absorption spectrometry. J. Hazard. Mater. 149:264 - 268. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat2007.03.072.

SKOOG, D.; WEST, D.; HOLLER, F.; CROUCH, S. 2005. Fundamentos de Química Analítica. Octava Edición. Thomson, México D.C. 1065 p.

TCHOUNWOU, PB; YEDJOU, CG; PATLOLLA, A.K; SUTTON, DJ. 2012. Heavy metal toxicity and the environment. Molecular, clinical and environmental toxicology. 3: 133-164. doi: 10.1007/978-3-7643-8340-4_6.

TÓTH, G; HERMANN, T.; DA SILVA, M.R.; MONTANARELLA, L. 2016. Heavy metals in agricultural soils of the European Union with implications for food safety. Environ. Int. 88:299 - 309. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2015.12.017.

WANG, X; CHEN, J; YAN, X; ZHANG, J; HUANG, J, ZHAO, J. 2015 Heavy metal chemical extraction from industrial and municipal mixed sludge by ultrasound-assisted citric acid. J. of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. 27:368 - 372. doi: 10.1016/j.jiec.2015.01.016.

Published
2016-12-14
How to Cite
Chaparro G., A., García F., J., Cardona R., Y., Bustamante C., J., & Peláez P., M. (2016). Development and validation of environmental friendly method for determination of heavy metals in pastures. Revista De Ciencias Agrícolas, 33(2), 3-15. https://doi.org/10.22267/rcia.163302.48
Section
Research and scientific and technological innovation article