Effects of Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) essential oils on the honey bees, Apis mellifera (Apidae: Hymenoptera), foraging

Keywords: extracts plant, mortality, pesticides, pollinators


The use of plant essential oils has been adopted as less hazardous to the environment and human health than synthetic insecticides used for the control of insects that transmit diseases . Despite of exerting insecticidal activities against several insect disease vectors, the potential impacts on non-target organisms exerted by essential oils extracted from Lippia sidoides (Cham.) have not received adequate attention. Here, we evaluated the susceptibility and potential changes in consumption rates of honey bees, Apis mellifera (L.), when exposed to essential oils extracted from L. sidoides. We exposed forager bees to honey syrup (50% v/v) containing L. sidoides essential oil for 5 h. After this exposure period, the bees received regular honey syrup for another 19 h period. We used six essential oil concentrations, namely 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5 µL of essential oil/mL of syrup, and evaluated the syrup consumption and bees’ mortality in both periods (at the 5th and 24th h). Our results reveal that independent of the essential oil concentration, the forager bees fed significantly  less on L. sidoides essential oil-containing honey syrup. However, feeding on L. sidoides essential oil-containing honey syrup did not cause significant mortality when compared with bees that were not exposed to the essential oils. Thus, our results demonstrate that L. sidoides essential oils exhibited adequate selectivity against honey bees.


Download data is not yet available.


Adams, R.P. (2007). Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Carol Stream: Allured Publishing Corporation. 804 pp.

Aguiar, R.W.S., Dos Santos, S.F., Da Silva Morgado, F., Ascencio, S.D., De Mendonça Lopes, M., Viana, K.F., Didonet, J. & Ribeiro, B.M. (2015). Insecticidal and Repellent Activity of Siparuna guianensis Aubl. (Negramina) against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. PLOS ONE. 10 (2): e0116765. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116765

Bailey, J., Scott-Dupree, C., Harris, R., Tolman, J.& Harris, B., (2005). Contact and oral toxicity to honey bees (Apis mellifera) of agents registered for use for sweet corn insect control in Ontario, Canada. Apidologie. 36 (4): 623-633. https://doi.org/10.1051/apido:2005048

Baldim, I., Tonani, L., Von Zeska Kress, M.R. & Pereira Oliveira, W., (2019). Lippia sidoides essential oil encapsulated in lipid nanosystem as an anti-Candida agent. Industrial Crops and Products. 127: 73-81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2018.10.064

Barbosa, W.F., De Meyer, L., Guedes, R.N.C. & Smagghe, G. (2015). Lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin on the bumblebee Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Ecotoxicology. 24 (1): 130-142. htpps://doi.org/10.1007/s10646-014-1365-9

Barker, R.J. & Lehner, Y. (1974). Acceptance and sustenance value of naturally occurring sugars fed to newly emerged adult workers of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). J. Exp. Zoo. 187 (2): 277. https://doi.org/10.1002/jez.1401870211

Botelho, M.A., Barros, G., Queiroz, D.B., Carvalho, C.F., Gouvea, J., Patrus, L., Bannet, M., Patrus, D., Rego, A., Silva, I., Campus, G. & Araújo-Filho, I. (2016). Nanotechnology in Phytotherapy: Antiinflammatory Effect of a Nanostructured Thymol Gel from Lippia sidoides in Acute Periodontitis in Rats. Phytother. Res. 30 (1): 152-159. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.5516

Brodschneider, R.& Crailsheim, K. (2010). Nutrition and health in honey bees. Apidologie. 41 (3): 278-294. https://doi.org/10.1051/apido/2010012

Brodschneider, R., Libor, A., Kupelwieser, V. & Crailsheim, K. (2017). Food consumption and food exchange of caged honey bees using a radioactive labelled sugar solution. PLOS ONE. 12 (3): e0174684. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0174684

Camilo, C.J., Alves Nonato, C.D.F., Galvão-Rodrigues, F.F., Costa, W.D., Clemente, G.G., Sobreira Macedo, M.A.C., Galvão Rodrigues, F.F. & Da Costa, J.G.M. (2017). Acaricidal activity of essential oils: a review. Trends in Phytochemical Research. 1 (4): 183-198. http://tpr.iau-shahrood.ac.ir/article_535451.html

Corcellas, C., Eljarrat, E. & Barceló, D. (2015). First report of pyrethroid bioaccumulation in wild river fish: A case study in Iberian river basins (Spain). Environ. Int. 75: 110-116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2014.11.007

Crailsheim, K., (1998). Trophallactic interactions in the adult honeybee (Apis mellifera L.). Apidologie. 29 (1-2): 97-112. https://doi.org/10.1051/apido:19980106

De Lima, G.P.G., De Souza, T.M., De Paula Freire, G., Farias, D.F., Cunha, A.P., Ricardo, N.M.P.S., De Morais, S.M. & Carvalho, A.F.U. (2013). Further insecticidal activities of essential oils from Lippia sidoides and Croton species against Aedes aegypti L. Parasitol. Res. 112 (5): 1953-1958. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-013-3351-1

Desmedt, L., Hotier, L., Giurfa, M., Velarde, R. & De Brito Sanchez, M.G. (2016). Absence of food alternatives promotes risk-prone feeding of unpalatable substances in honey bees. Sci. Rep. 6 : 31809. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep31809

Ferreira, T.P.S., Mourão, D.S.C., Dos Santos, G.R., Guimarães, L.G.L., Pires, E.C.F., Santos, W.F. & Aguiar, R.W.S., (2018). Fungistatic activity of essential oil of Lippia sidoides Cham. against Curvularia lunata Afri. J. Agri. Res. 13 (14): 704-713. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR2018.12977
How to Cite
Pinheiro, I., S. Luz, J., N. Souza, L., Oliveira, A., Oliveira, E., Aguiar, R., Santos, G., Ferreira, T., Silveira-Tschoeke, M., & Tschoeke, P. (2019). Effects of Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) essential oils on the honey bees, Apis mellifera (Apidae: Hymenoptera), foraging. Revista De Ciencias Agrícolas, 36(E). Retrieved from http://revistas.udenar.edu.co/index.php/rfacia/article/view/4879
Research and scientific and technological innovation article