Asociación de parásitos intestinales con síndrome anémico en niños escolares: Una revisión sistemática de la literatura

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.22267/rus.242601.309

Palabras clave:

Parásitos intestinales, Anemia ferropenica, Niño

Resumen

Introducción: Las parasitosis intestinales y la anemia son un problema de salud pública mundial. Estos parásitos tienen tropismo hacia el intestino delgado, afectan la absorción de micronutrientes durante la eritropoyesis, produciendo la aparición de un síndrome anémico por un recuento bajo de glóbulos rojos y déficit de hemoglobina. Objetivo: Establecer la asociación de la infección por parásitos intestinales y síndrome anémico en niños en edad escolar. Materiales y métodos: Búsqueda sistemática de literatura publicada entre 2010-2021 sobre asociación entre infección por parásitos intestinales y síndrome anémico en escolares. Resultados: Se identificó 1151 publicaciones, al aplicar los criterios de inclusión y exclusión, se redujeron a 33, encontrándose 9 agentes asociados a anemia, siendo A. lumbricoides (27,27%), A. duodenalis y T. trichiura los helmintos más prevalentes, y G. duodenalis (6,06%) el protozoario más común. El 39,39% de los estudios incluyó ambos agentes. África (21), Asia (6), Sudamérica (5) y Centroamérica (1) tienen la mayoría de publicaciones. Se observa asociación significativa entre infección parasitaria y la anemia IC=95%. Conclusión: La evidencia demuestra alta prevalencia de anemias carenciales de tipo ferropénica y megaloblástica, con asociación significativa entre un mayor porcentaje de infecciones por helmintos y síndrome anémico, en comparación con infecciones por protozoos.

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Publicado

2023-09-06

Cómo citar

1.
Garzon-Castaño SC, Gil-Grajales Ángela M, Echeverri-Herrera D, Montoya-Giraldo LA, Uribe-Palacio GD, López-Muñoz DF, Giraldo-Ospina B. Asociación de parásitos intestinales con síndrome anémico en niños escolares: Una revisión sistemática de la literatura. Univ. Salud [Internet]. 6 de septiembre de 2023 [citado 12 de abril de 2024];26(1):9-18. Disponible en: https://revistas.udenar.edu.co/index.php/usalud/article/view/7329

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Sección

Determinantes sociales de la salud